Glass is the material that has emerged as the most appropriate to house wine, and protecting it from external agents without cramping your style.
Formerly each wine was bottled in a certain format bottle, which determined its source or origin producing area. Currently, different bottle sizes, colors, shapes and materials used. The most commonly used types of bottles are:
-"Bordeaux" bottle cylindrical, elongated neck and shoulders elevated, being traditionally used for red wines stored in green glass and transparent in certain white wines.
-Bottle "Burgundian" of barrel and wider shoulders slumped traditionally used green to red wines parenting, and more rarely for white wines.
-Bottle "champañesa" very similar to Burgundy, made from green glass and wall thickness of greater width, to better withstand the high pressures carbonated wines.
-Bottle "Rhenish" a slender and elongated with very narrow shoulders, is used almost exclusively for white wine in green, and transparent for rosé wines.
-"Jerez" bottle from Bordeaux very similar appearance, but straighter shoulders and marked, made of black glass.
-Bottle "Porto" type similarly to Bordeaux, but straight shoulders and marked with swollen or bulbous neck, and dark green or black.
-Bottle type "Franconia" flattened, rounded and short cylindrical neck contour and appearance.
All bottles carry inscriptions in the background which further indicates the manufacturer, the nominal volume of the same, and a figure which indicates the height in millimeters from the plane where the mouth is reached at 20 ° C the nominal volume indicated.
From an oenological point of view, mouth or neck is possibly the most important part of the bottle, as with the closure, are the guarantee for good wine storage inside, must reach the total set sealing for a fairly long time. Measures defining the mouths of the bottles are: inner diameter, corkage and mouth.
The various types of mouth used depend closure system adopted, or the kind of liquid to be bottled, and also conditioned by the type of capsule used topping.
From the fourth century BC there is evidence of the use of cork for purposes other than plugs, such as floats for fishing equipment, bee hives, or amphoras lids shoe soles. But until the late seventeenth century there is no evidence of its use as a wine closure.
At this time the monk Dom Pierre Perignon sugar added to young wines of Champagne to preserve natural effervescence produced, giving birth to champagne, and a type of elastic and waterproof material that prevented the output of these gases is necessary, with which the cork the inseparable friend of this drink is made. In this same way, their use in the wine industry was spreading and becomes an indispensable item in the industry.
Cork is a light -impermeable , compressible , resilient , liquid and gas materials , with high capacity for thermal and acoustic insulation , mechanical wear resistant to degradation by acids and microorganisms and fuego.Éstas characteristics peculiar bestows cellular structure of corky tissue. The cells are dead and filled with air , because during the growth and suberification the cell contents are lost . Physical and chemical properties have never been matched by any artificial material. The cork can reach levels of compression about half its width without losing flexibility without deformation. When compressed , constantly tries to return to its original size, thus maintaining and ensuring the blocked indefinitely. Cork is also more tolerant than other materials to changes in temperature and pressure . P> The first shows
cork oak in life is performed when the trunk circumference reaches 65 cm, measured at 130 cm . This first cork is called " virgin cork " and because of their irregular structure, is not valid for the production of caps . The second take is performed after 9 and the cork removed is called " second hand " , which is also not used for production of plugs due to its still irregular structure, but less than that of virgin cork . Normally this type of cork is dedicated to crushing for use in products such as floor coverings. The third and subsequent bags lead to reproduction cork or factory . Her belly ( inside , in contact with the mother layer) and back ( outside) are smooth and uniform caliber , so it is suitable for the manufacture of caps .
The extraction is done by professionals punches , they must manage skillfully cork ax practicarle not any injury to the mother layer, which is prohibited, as it would endanger the life of the oak.
The first operation is the opening that is to hit the cork vertically in the deepest recess of the oak. At the same time the ax cut is rolled , in order to separate the outer cork interior. The iron is then separated from the tree by inserting the tip of the ax and moving it between trunk and cork , to remove it on panels , the larger , more commercial value. Cork , once removed , separated by grades , lots done and was the stable , which is to leave these piles in the open for six months or more , in which atmospheric factors eliminate the sap, the polyphenols are oxidized and cork pattern stabilizes. < / p>
After this stabilization , the planks are boiled in water for at least one hour. In this process the gas in the cells expands , creating a dense and uniform cellular structure and increasing the total volume of the cork by approximately 20 % , becoming more smooth and soft and therefore easy to work . Subsequently, the plates are dried and subjected to a recovery period of three weeks in storage temperature and humidity controlled .
These sheets are cut into strips for both automatic drilling bits ( more uniform textures ) and manual ( less uniform textures) . The resulting plugs and polished to correct size end. At this point , it proceeds to a classification , eliminating having any detrimental default capping wine . They were then subjected to a process of washing and disinfecting and drying in special ovens .
The next step is printing, if it is required , and silicone and paraffin coating to facilitate insertion and removal. Finally , the caps are packaged automatically disinfected with sulfur dioxide and placed in sacks .
< / p> Varieties
Chipboard : Corks made of ground cork agglomerates discard a synthetic glue < / p> .
Colmated : Corks much porosity in which the holes were plugged with cork dust and a tail < / p> .
1 +1 Corks : Corks made by combining two rings at the ends natural cork agglomerate cork in the center < / p> .
technical corks , synthetic corks made from cork powder and a binder compacted to get a cork actually has some natural cork. < / p>
The breakthrough in the industry of polymers and processing methods in the last quarter of the last century has allowed the design of a synthetic cap that meets all the technological requirements that the blocked list has , and without risk of TCA contamination .
The methods of manufacture of caps can basically classified into two types : by injection or extrusion .
* Do not change the taste of wine , having no possibility of contamination with TCA .
* They are more airtight , prevent gas exchange with the external environment and much better kept under free SO2.
* No break to uncork the bottle.
* Do not generate dust falling on the wine.
* They are more hygienic , it is not a product that has been in contact with dirt , insects , microorganisms, etc. .
* Being an industrial product produced with latest technology and advanced quality control , uniformity ensures the caps .
* It can be colored using dyes suitable for food contact , giving many variants from the point of view of marketing. They can also be printed with best quality.
* You do not need the bottles on forever ( saving space and transportation). The natural cork only works properly when wet.
* They are very similar to natural corks as sight and touch.
* You can open using the same wine corkscrew uncorking maintaining the characteristic "pop" . < / p>