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Wine Tasting < / h2 >         

1-Introduction :
          
          
          The tasting is to try and make carefully analyzing a wine through the senses. This act is performed to discover its nature , analyzing their strengths and weaknesses .
          
          Today it is more feasible to do this work because we have more existing knowledge about the world of wine and more in our country in question by the vast literature .
          
          The purpose is to transmit that knowledge to all interested in the fascinating world of wine which has its objective and subjective part , after following some theoretical steps may estimate its subjective.
          
          As the years have passed the wine world has been catching on . The company wants to have a basic knowledge on how to taste wine , but very few people are able to do so.
          
          
          
          2 - The senses :
          
          The tasting is to test a product whose quality we want to see, looking through our senses , especially taste and smell, its flaws and qualities. The wine tasting is thus a set of methods and techniques to assess their properties, organoleptic calls through the sense organs .
          
          The following table gives a clear vision on the intervention of the senses in tasting wine :
          
          bodies
          Senses and sensations
          Perceived characteristics
          
          
          EYES
          vision
          
          Visual sensations
          Color , clarity , fluency, excitement , intensity and transparency.
          
          APPEARANCE
          
          NOSE
          smell
          
          Olfactory sensations ( nasal )
          Aroma, "bouquet"
          
          ODOR
          
          
          LIKE
          smell
          
          Olfactory sensations ( retronasal )
          Aroma of mouth, "bouquet" internal
          
          BODY
          
          Gusto
          
          Taste sensations
          Flavor or taste
          
          Persistence balance
          
          touch
          
          Chemical sensations
          
          Reaction of mucous
          stringency
          
          Spicy , irritation
          
          touch
          
          Tactile sensations
          
          Thermal sensations
          Consistency , fluidity
          
          Smoothness , body
          
        Temperature < / p>         


          
          2.1 Visual Examination
          
          Color, intensity and clarity : In the first phase of the three features -visual - tasting studied .
          
          The wine must be seen in the glass, initially at rest , through the light and trying to see transparency or clarity , brightness , intensity and hue of the color.
          
          
          Spinning the wine in the glass fluidity and density is appreciated. Came fluid behaves like water and wine as a dense syrup .
          
          After stirring , and while resting , forming tears sliding down the sides of the glass can be seen , which will indicate a greater or lesser degree alcohol and glycerin . The appreciation of color by tilting the cup 45 º on a white background to better see the colors and shades.
          
          2.1.1 The color
          
          The color reports on the body , age and condition of the wine , as the human eye becomes luminous sensations received external relations . Its intensity will give us more accurate information about the wine body and tannic structure idea.
          
          If the color is strong and concentrated wine may be strong and rich in tannic substances .
          
          If the color is weak and open wine is sure to be light and short in the mouth , which does not mean it is rich , pleasant and flawless.
          
          
          
          Interpretation of the color of the wine in the glass at an angle of 45 °
          
          
          
          Remarks:
          The different colors are not due to the minor or major age, they are similar age . Chamomile or fine maintains a pale color due to the absence of oxidation ( biological aging , "flower", without contact with oxygen ) . The amontillado has taken its color influence its mixed oxidation - rearing and the fragrant flower is darker by the absolute oxidative aging (heat , air).
          
          2.1.2 The color intensity
          
          Is the assessment of the amount and intensity of color, and clarity of the wine is also evaluated , noting the possible presence of particulate matter in the wine. Do not confuse the presence of suspended particles to the turbidity , which may be the result of poor preparation or sediments located in old bottles product of long natural aging of the wine. With the analysis of the clarity it can be determined if the wine is bright, clean, clear, matte , hazy, opalescent, opaque, dirty, dull , cloudy , etc. . The clarity , transparency and brightness qualities are suitable for white and rosé wines , but not for red wines where you can find clean wines that are not too transparent, because transparency depends on the intensity of their color, a visual effect an intense burgundy we might seem very transparent .
          
2.1.3 shade or tone
          
          The tint or hue gives us to see the degree of evolution of the wine so young white wines give us green reflections , mature , handjob , old golden reflections and white past , amber reflections. Young pink reflections give us pink raspberry, ripe strawberries freshly picked , ripe strawberries old and past rosés apricot reflections give us and give us young red purple hues , ripe , red cherry, old reflexes to tile , and the last red , brown reflection . To say that these nuances depend on ink grape variety , length of maceration and acidity .
          
          2.1.4 The clarity
          
          The clarity , good wine must be clean and limpidity , permanent. The presence of suspended particles disturbs other taste sensations. We must distinguish between turbidity , which is a sign of poor winemaking and presence of natural sediment in the bottle during aging , this deposit of coloring matter is a sign of quality , old age and lack of manipulation in the bottle. The clarity , gloss and transparency are fundamental in white and rose wines , but in red and the degree of intensity of its color, it may happen that a wine is limpid but not transparent . The clarity of a wine is described by adjectives : bright, clean, clear, matte , hazy, opaque , dirty, dull, murky and veiled .
          
          2.1.5 Fluency
          
          Fluency : gives the character of the viscosity of a wine that is observed by rotating a glass and results in the so-called effect , legs or tears of wine, this effect described by James Thomson in 1855 , occurs when there is a strong alcohol evaporation which is condensed in the top of the cup and down through the walls into droplets due to the surface tension and depends on the presence of glycerol and sugars . These tears dependent :
          
        Surface tension created between the liquid and the wall of the cup, smooth, rough or has traces of detergents , dirt, etc. . , And the presence of alcohols , sugars , etc. . Carbon dioxide , all wines contain more or less an amount of CO2. Generally cava contain more than whites, these in turn more pink and finally red . < / P>         


          2.2 Olfactory Examination:
          
          Smell is the main direction of the tasting olfactory sensitivity is about ten thousand times higher than that of taste. The center of our sense of smell is in the olfactory bulbs , which are on top of each nostril . These olfactory bulbs are stimulated by odorant molecules in the gaseous state , by two different routes : the nose and mouth. For the first inspired odorant molecules , which amount the nostrils through the length of the nose to the olfactory bulbs . For the second , the amount of odorant molecules mouth and the throat to the nose and the olfactory bulbs . It's called the " aftertaste " of a wine. The amount of aromatic compounds that volatilize depend largely on the temperature of the wine and of the evaporation surface .
          
          Wine aromas are classified into three categories:
          
          Primary aromas : detach from the surface of the wine and increase if you shake it , this type of flavor is produced by the vine variety and field . Nasally are obtained.
          
          Secondary aromas : arising from contact with the tongue and shake it with the mouth, as it increases the temperature of the wine thus obtained retronasal are produced by the type of fermentation.
          
          
          Tertiary aromas : like side are obtained by retronasal and are produced by maturation and aging of wine , either in barrel or bottle.
          
          
          The set of these three flavors is called " bouquet" , ie , a young wine , without aging , will have primary and secondary aromas, but we can never talk about him referring to her bouquet. Tertiary aromas can be oxidation or reduction and both at once . The oxidation are acquired during the maturation process of the wine in contact with oxygen (during barrel aging ) reduction aromas form airtight , during aging in bottle.
          
          How to do tasting :
          
          First you have to smell the wine at rest, to appreciate the more subtle , fleeting aromas, as they are the most volatile , but it is the best way to determine possible defects or odors without masking . Then you need to smell the wine in the glass after flip in reverse motion clockwise , it increases the evaporation surface and perceive greater aromatic sensation. And finally you have to smell the empty glass after the tasting, the presence of alcohol is minimal and the aromas flow from the thin film of wine yet evaporated.
          
          
          The wine tasting postnasal always occurs with the wine in the mouth, just before the moment of swallowing, and an overpressure is created in the mouth and is expelled in the retronasal air . The more experienced tasters do a slight gurgling sucking air to heat the wine and help evaporate more heavy to perceive new smells odor molecules .
          
          
          
          2.2.1 Aroma and bouquet
          
          The smell is so aromatic young wines early while the bouquet is the hue acquired during aging.
          
          The aromas are classified :
          
          . 1 - Primary or varieties , which are the flavors of the grape: examples: cabernet sauvignon, coffee aroma, currant or truffle. The riesling , a peach blossom and sometimes oil. The muscat, citrus , rose wood .
          
          2 - . Secondary fermentation or are the vinous aromas from the alcoholic fermentation . The more sugar the grapes have more secondary aromas .
          
          . 3 - Tertiary or bouquet , are aromas of which can be: oxidation , wine aged in contact with air, characterized by the presence of aldehydic substances and aroma ( apple , quince, walnut , etc . ) it is stable in air or reduction , wines aged airtight that can be destroyed to open the bottle violently . This bouquet reaches its perfection in the bottle.
          
          PRIMARY AROMA O Nose:
          
          Vegetable Series
          Floral Series
          Fruity series
          Mineral Series
          
          Fresh grass , hay, dry hay , fern , green leaf, dry leaf , lavender, tea, herbal tea , tea leaf snuff , anise , mint , thyme , fennel , laurel , boxwood, understory , litter , mushrooms, truffles, green pepper , fresh coffee , underbrush , green leaf snuff , etc. .
          
          Honeysuckle, acacia , hyacinth , jasmine , hawthorn, rose, geranium , tuberose , lily , broom , carnation , orange blossom , lilac, acacia honey , rosemary , violet, peony, rose wilts , etc. .
          
          Apple, pear , peach , melon , Granada, apricot, loquat , grapefruit , lemon , lime, orange , peel of citrus , quince , pineapple , mango , passion fruit , banana , watermelon, passion fruit , sour candy, fresh almond , fruit red and black ( black currant or cassis, cherry, strawberry, raspberry, blackberry , lychee , apricot, cranberry , cherry , plum , etc.).
          
          Flint , pencil , chalk , iodine, silex , naphtha, oil , black pepper , green pepper, white pepper , paprika, thyme, clove , nutmeg , cardamom, etc. .
          
          
          
          SECONDARY FERMENTATION OR FLAVORS :
          
          Fermentation series
          Way Series
          Amílica Series
          
          Yeast, bread crumbs, briote , cookie , pastry , fine pastries, etc. .
          Milk, yogurt , fresh butter , fresh cheese , fresh and dry yeast , etc. .
          Banana, caramel acid , nail polish , polish.
          
          
          FOSTER OR TERTIARY AROMA :
          
          Floral Series
          Fruity series
          Series confectionery
          Wood Series balsamic
          
          Dried flowers , chamomile , heather , underbrush , truffle, mushrooms, etc. .
          Nuts: hazelnuts , walnuts , dried almonds, dried apricots , red and black fruits on
          Honey, praline , almond paste , cake , beeswax, shredded coconut , dried apricots, etc. .
          Cedar, oak, white wood, soft wood , vanilla , smoke, roast , pine resin , eucalyptus, shredded coconut , snuff , smoking,
          
          
          ONLY FOR RED WINES :
          
          Empyreumatic - Animal Series
          
          Cacao , toast, gingerbread, roasted hazelnuts and almonds, nuts, coffee, snuff juice, meat, leather , ink , musk , hunting and feathered hair , animal skin , blood, etc. .
          
          Fruity series
          Wood Series balsamic
          
          dried apricots , prunes , candied cherry, plum and cherry liqueur , figs , fig, black olives, etc. .           licorice, wood smoke , wood smoke , incense, cigar box , etc. .
          
          2.3 Gustative Review :
          
          The organs are taste receptors on taste buds. Each disc contains hundreds of taste buds and each taste bud contains a dozen taste buds, ending in cilia .
          
          Taste buds can be: foliate , goblet that are in the back of the tongue on the lingual call V . They are sensitive to the bitter taste . Fungiform , at the tip of the tongue and the filiform papillae or tactile .
          
          A substance is tasteless if soluble in saliva, produced by parietal glands , submandibular , sublingual and parotid , the saliva contains a protein called mucin which is coagulated by the tannins of red wines producing a sensation of astringency. Saliva has a neutral PH .
          
          All told when to take a wine mouth , some precautions must be taken such as:
          
          Put in your mouth the same volume of wine each time.
          
          Remove the wine with his tongue.
          
          Conduct a bubble to exalt flavors and defects.
          
          Spitting wine.
          
          
          2.3.1 sensations in the mouth
          
          The taste is a result of the retroolfativa feeling and sensation of contact. The aromas are perceived mouth and retronasal sensations are perceived Contact :
          
          For the primary tastes , located in different parts of the tongue and dependent on food habits. For example , a person subject to a regime without salt, the salt will have a threshold that others do not have that flavor regime .
          
          For tactile sensations - . Occur by contact of the wine with the oral mucosa and indicates the texture, fluidity, smoothness and roundness of the wine.
          
          For thermal sensations - . Gives us an idea of ​​the temperature of the wine .
          
          By pseudotérmicas feelings - . Produced by alcohol and we are produce sensations of burning and stinging.
          
          By chemical sensations - . Those that produce sensations of dryness, roughness , roughness, etc. . For example , the astringency of red wines , also called estipticidad and is due to three causes:
          
          1 - . To clot mucin saliva.
          
          2 - . Upon cessation of salivary secretion .
          
          3 - . And fixation of tannin on the mucosa thereby losing permeability .
          
          3 - Other aspects of the tasting :
          
          
          3.1 - Temperature:
          
          
          The temperature of the wine is more important than what is believed to be a key to savor the benefits offered by this fluid requirement.
          
          Not too cold or too hot , the right temperature varies depending on the type of wine. Although as a general rule , regardless of the type of stock, you should consider its alcohol content. The lowest contains less alcohol can be your serving temperature.
          
          The reds should be presented with a temperature range of between 16 and 18 º so you can keep all its nuances. Excessive temperature causes the volatility of the alcohol flood the palate, aromas and discrediting proving difficult to distinguish .
          
          Young and fresh red can occur between 12 and 15 and those of great vintages at 20 ° C.
          
          As for white and rosé wines will be taken fresh but not very cold. Between 8 and 10 ° C , are the ideal degree must reach the broth to enjoy its fruity aromas that otherwise might not be appreciated . With a higher temperature than alcohol right prevails , however highlights an excessively low acidity and disguises his personality.
          
          As , a sweet white wine is recommended to serve at 6 ° C , allowing you enhance fruit and sweet speech.
          
          Whites need to foster a temperature between 10 and 12 ° C to preserve the complex aromas of oak. Should be served between 7 and 10 ° C , the fine sweet white , chamomile and .
          
          The proper temperature for pink is somewhat lower , between 6 and 8 and for bubbles cava temperature should be between 5 and 7 ° C.
          
          It is recommended that the temperature change came abruptly , do not put in the freezer . If wine is a white , pink or champagne not get in the fridge a few hours before serving.
          
          The ideal resource for quickly regulate the temperature of the wine is the bucket with water and ice , but also not be used for an excessively long time. In the icy water , the wine takes about fifteen minutes to decrease 10 º C , while in the fridge takes over two hours to get the same result.
          
          But to taste the colors were some people prefer to take the red at room temperature and cool it with gas , others consider wine as a means to quench the thirst and the colder the better hard . Despite the different views on the wine, you must dispense a proper treatment in order to take advantage of the countless qualities offered this generous broth.
          
          
          3.2 - Comparison :
          
          It is always more positive taste or taste of a wine in a session ( three is an acceptable number ) in order to better compare and evaluate the positive and negative aspects of each .
          
          Volume 3.3- sensation :
          
          The perfect combination of all wine organoleptic parameters , gives a positive result , one-dimensional , where we did not observe or serrated edges ( no taste and / or flavor stands out above another .
          
          
          3.4 - Uncorked Wine :
          
          The story of the first corkscrew goes back to the mid-eighteenth century when a spiral tool that was originally used to remove old rifles bullets was used to remove corks cork with wine bottles that were covered at the time.
          
          
          Today most wine bottles are sealed with corks , except some which are closed with a simple plastic plug.
          
          Before opening a bottle must ensure that it has the right temperature , it is also important that the bottle to use it find horizontal in a quiet place away from light and strong temperature changes, recommending a constant temperature of between 10 ° C and 15 ° C for several days .
          
          If no sedimentation is observed in the bottom of the container , it is important not to place the bottle in a basket to be served , otherwise happen with vintage wines which are mostly caused by the tannic deposits materials .
          
          If the bottle has the latter feature is necessary to take certain precautions such as stir it and keep it in the basket settling into its original position .
          
          Operation uncorking a fine wine is delicate and it is advisable to know its details , in addition to the indispensable tool for this purpose as it is a good corkscrew.
          
          We could list a number of steps to perform this task successfully and pleasure :
          
          · Firstly it is essential to carefully cut the metal ring capsule below the peak as the wine must not have any contact with her, then it is recommended to go over the top of the bottle with a clean cloth.
          
          · One thing to keep in mind is that you should not completely cross the cork as this would produce particles that fall on the same drink.
          
          · After the operation performed cork extraction is necessary to clean the mouth of the bottle again prior to serving to prove it. If you like a wine cork please discard it.
          
          · To open champagne or sparkling wine is also necessary to know certain types of procedures such as tilting the bottle slightly to get an angle of 45 º, then begin to release the cork carefully , this will allow gas leakage without produce any noise and foam of the same loss.
          
          · Again, after this process is necessary to dry the shoulder of the peak, then strain into cups to measure a finger before filling up to three-quarters full.
          
          Not only is it important to know about the corkage for wines but also need to have knowledge of how to keep once opened.
          
          Both white wine as red wine retain their characteristics and will remain fresh for approximately three days after being uncorked , once past that time frame them lose some of its features which will cause flavor changes a bit .
          
          After being uncorked , the wines are owed the same place again and try to keep to the original temperature when they were open. In the case of white wines they should be refrigerated , when it comes to red wines , they may be kept either as before or be chilled or room temperature protecting from excessive heat and great temperature change.
          
          There are some other more sophisticated methods but very effective in preserving high quality wines , such as acquiring a special mini-pump that extracts the air trapped within the original bottle and blocks . Another method is to inject a few inches of inert gas purchased in specialized homes.
          
          When we speak of bottles which have not been opened it is recommended to keep them in pleasant temperature , which are protected from heat and sudden movements , as well as place them horizontally so that the cork is in permanent contact with the liquid.
          
          
          3.5 - Cups :
          
          A proper glass for serving wine must:
          
          - Having the lowering portion narrower mouth .
          
          - Being thin glass , especially the top.
          
          Having a foot - high hand to separate the wine from reaching to heat the wine.
          
          - Be smooth and transparent
          
          - Having a large enough size
          
          Should never be used - colored glasses , hiding the pleasant visual aspect of wine
          
          - Do not overfill a glass , accurate enough wine to "breathe " while should release its wonderful aroma space.
          
          
          
          
          
          11 - Bordeaux Cup type
          
          12 - Cup type Burgundy
          
          13 - Copa designed for Cote de Rhone Wines
          
          14 - Glass of Champagne
          
          15 - Bordeaux Cup White Chardonnay
          
          
          3.6 - The pairing of wines and dishes :
          
          Of all known standards are set for the marriage between
          
          delicacies and wines that over time have been settled . Today, fortunately , it is clearer that it is advice rather than rules , and that is good and wise to try as many wines as novel new combinations.
          
          When the combination should always be sought to balance either creative or conservative. Neither dish came to prominence can remove or reverse. We must also ensure that the sensory result of the combination is not a true sensory failure.
          
          However there are some substances that are true enemies of wine : garlic , onion , vinegar and celery. The artichoke , asparagus and eggs are really complicated to harmonize and do not allow for any large lucimientos wine.
          
          There are dishes which involve a real risk when combined. For example , some crustaceans for its high iodine content can spoil the flavor of the wine.
          
          Chocolate is another food difficult . But now , they may find that perfectly sweet and mutually potentiate the effect of synergy , such as some Pedro Ximénez wines of Priorat or Banyuls.
          
          The cheeses , however , are usually large gourmet wine giving allies sometimes spectacular results .
          
          When choosing wines for a meal is needed to evaluate the sequence and try to respect fully the order of consumption. And it is always better to one or two well-chosen wines that five of contradictory .
          
          It is also good to know that sparkling cavas in general and in particular when dry is a sensory Error drink them with sweet desserts . It is much more logical to take along food and the end of it , with desserts , get a sweet wine .
          
          Finally should be borne in mind that the work of marriage , despite its popularity, is truly complex .
          
          With purely indicative mood can be approximated to a classification of tips such as:
          
          
          APPETIZERS
          
          sausages , pates, foie gras, fried ...
          Dry white wine , young , fried aromatics .
          Varietal barrel-fermented or semi - sweet for the foie .
          Young reds or short breeding for sausages.
          
          SALADS
          greens, legumes, cold, temperate ...
          White low acid for raw vegetables .
          Some young red when added vegetables or pasta .
          White barrel-fermented for warm and aromatic .
          
          
          
          SOUPS
          cold creams , fish , meat ,
          
wines ...           Red and white , young and dry age they can win if they are meat or fish soups .
          
          
          
          ARROCESS
          
          whites, fish , meat, vegetables ...
          Pink sparkling fresh and dry .
          Tannic wines on rice with meat.
          
          
          PASTA
          
          with vegetable sauces , meat ...
          White body with pink and fleshy and expressive .
          
          
          MUSHROOMS
          
          sauteed , stewed , grilled ...
          Red light , not too complex , youth and livestock .
          
          
          EGGS
          
          omelette, boiled , fried ...
          For tortillas, young red light .
          For the rest , well worth pink with
          
          
          SEAFOOD
          , light , thick raw ...
          
Aromatic dry white and sparkling , young           
          
          
          FISH
          
          white, blue , raw, marinated, stewed , pickled , steamed, fumats ...
          Sparkling and light for white fish steamed white .
          Sparkling parenting and corpulent for whitefish generally white .
          Aromatic young reds , whites and sparkling fermented in barrel with breeding for blue fish , cooked and smoked .
          Sparkling white varietals age and personality with raw fish.
          Semi - dry whites aged for marinade.
          
          MEAT
          
          white, pen, red , cold , raw, roasted , stewed , hunting ...
          Young, light red to white meat .
          Barrel-fermented white , pink bodied and fruity and soft red for raw meat .
          Sparkling white and parenting , along with expressive and light pink to red birds .
          Tannic wines for gelatinous meat .
          Long aging wines and spirits for hunting.
          
          
          CHEESE
          
          
          fresh , tender , cured, goat , sheep, cow ...
          For aromatic white cheese.
          The rest of cheese combine well with almost all
          White, generous , young and easy reds
          
          DESSERTS
          fruit , sweets , milk , chocolate ...
          Mistelas young for fruit.
          For sweet , muscat , grenache , Pedro Ximenez , malaga, Malvasia , sweet sparkling ...
          For fragrant chocolate, Málaga , Pedro Ximenez old ...
          
          
          
          Useful life of wine - 3.7 :
          
          - Young White wines need to be consumed within the first year to appreciate all the aromatic expressiveness.
          - White wines Vintage: Can stay well and even improve for 3 or 4 years.
          - Rose wines : Between 6 and 12 months.
          - Novice black Wines : In the period until the next harvest comes .
          - Wines young black : Up to 2 years .
          - Black Crianza Wines : Top can be up to 20 years. But they are truly exceptional.
          - Cavas : Within the first year after disgorging. It's good, because in generally cava labels appear not add it , know the age of cava . But more and more high quality cavas keep well for longer.
          - Champagne: Younger during the first year after uncorking . Other more servants may last 5-7 years.
          - Sweet wines : Depending on the type from 1 year to over 10 .
          
          April Wine - Defects :
          
          Wine is a food product , so during processing and stores must follow some serious hygiene . Generally, a wine is faulty when you get issues , aromas and / or unpleasant taste. Not surprisingly, the tasting is a very personal sensory analysis , which is why what may seem to us a defect to another taster may seem a virtue.
          
          Defects in wines:
          - flavors or flavors annealing.
          - smells like rotten eggs ( hydrogen ) .
          fungi - aromas .
          - arable or astringent flavors.
          wine - blotchy .
          - joiner ( much flavor and / or aroma of wood ) .
          old - wood.
          - flavor and / or medicinal taste .
          - aroma and / or flavor vinegars.
          
          5 - Demonstration of the tasting :
          
          5.1 - What is taste ?

          Tasting a wine is to prosecute our senses to value , appreciate and enjoy it . Khat is used by the professional to know the origin of the wine , appreciate the commercial value , the influence of cultural practices or experimental tests to track your progress ... The tasting is used by the consumer to better understand what is more drinking and enjoying wine .
          
          
          5.2 - Steps:
          
          In general , all people have the ability to taste . Nobody is born knowing how to do it , but you need to train , sharpen the senses and learn a simple technique .
          
          The assessor should be relaxed , calm and focused .
          
          The best time to taste it in the morning ( an hour or two before dinner ) or afternoon once the digestion. Better taste a little hungry .
          
          A tasting for beginners should not exceed ½ hours duration and the number of samples tasted must be between 8 and 10.
          
          In the tasting room you should avoid a high level of background noise for the taster to concentrate.
          
          The temperature should be close to 20 º C. It is not convenient to drop to 18 º C or exceeding 22 ° C for the possible alteration of the temperature of the wine.
          
          In lighting the candles and halogen filament lamps are suitable . No fluorescent serve .
          Relative humidity : 60 to 70 %.
          
          The color of the tasting room influences our perceptions and can influence the final result. There are colors that enhance certain characteristics of the wines .
          Red . Power sugary flavors. Benefits and harms very tannic red to red made from grenache .
          Green . Da biggest impression of acidity. Benefits for white wines, except for those who are more alcoholic , who are harmed .
          Blue . It stimulates the perception of bitter tastes . Are benefiting Pink and sweet wines and , by contrast, hurts the cavas and red .
          Amarillo. Stimulates salty . In general , benefits and harms whites reds.
          
          The wines are ordered from the lightest to the hardest of the weakest to the most alcoholics, from the driest to sweetest . Overall tried first white and then red , first young and then old . If there is any sweet wine will be left for last.
          
          You can only eat neutral foods : bread, breadsticks , crackers ... no
          
          It is the most important element that uses the taster. It should be fine , colorless , transparent and smooth glass . The cup be caught only by foot to not heat the wine and not leave footprints wine clouding vision .
          
          The taster will sample many different wines and that allows the taster enrich both the vocabulary and sensory .
          
          The assessor must establish a method to be followed in all the tastings , we recommend the help of an expert assessor to look at the steps in q follows a tasting .
          
          It is advisable to put into practice the so-called " blind tasting " widely used by expert wine tasters as this practice can perceive sensory sensations of each wine without the influence of the label on the bottle.
          
          The steps mentioned above is what that called khat . Tasting wine is not a difficult task , in contrast , a wine tasting is available to everyone as we all have the capacity to perceive aromas and flavors. Just put a little will to good tasting conch . We should add that a good method to follow to make a good tasting drink very schematically , clear , analytical and deep. If these steps are obtained then we obtain a real knowledge of wine .
          
        Recall that the practice of wine tasting is a subjective exercise , it can be deduced that the more strict is this less subjective procedure will face < / p>         


          
          6 - Vocabulary tasting :
          
          A:
          
          Abocado : Wine with sweet trend .
          
          Finish: Wine nicely finished , balanced, with a particular taste and elegant finish .
          
          Acerbo : sensation of acidity, hardness , roughness, between spicy and pungent , which may or may not lessened with age.
          
          Acetic : vinegar odor , characteristic of a wine attacked by harmful enzymes.
          
          Acidity: natural grape acids granted to wine healthy liveliness and freshness , contributing to the formation of the bouquet. The lack of acidity produces wines loose and weak . Your excess causes harsh effects and spicy on the tongue. Do not confuse this with the necessary acidity acid, produced by immature defect or of dubious quality grapes.
          
          Acidic : rough and spicy.
          
          Sourly unpleasant roughness by excess acidity .
          
          Affable : soft, harmonious, pleasing .
          
          Fruity : aroma which highlights the features of the mature grape that is usually found in fresh wines.
          
          Bittersweet : poor taste of a wine that has been developed neglecting the temperature.
          
          Aguado : weak, lazy , lacking in qualities.
          
          Needle ( wine ) type of wine , without being fizzy, itchy palate and tongue.
          
          Smoked: subtlety in aroma and flavor reminiscent precisely to smoke and it is noticeably softer than smoked foods . It is characteristic of some white grapes.
          
          Alegre: wine of great liveliness and smoothness.
          
          Alma : character, personality of a wine.
          
          Bitter Almonds: unpleasant odor that indicates a defect.
          
          Altered: it does not offer the features of a normal wine because of accidents or illness.
          
          Bitter, bitter : unpleasant taste sensation in a wine that indicates defects. It is only acceptable in certain wine used as an aperitif or vermouth .
          
          Asbestos unpleasant waste can leave the filter plates , off -alkali producing wines.
          
          Friendly : friendly, easy to take, complacent wine.
          
          Broad: harmonious and balanced wine with persistent flavor and outstanding qualities
          
          Vintage: vintage ( see Vintage) .
          
          Off: dull , insipid , lacking in acidity. For foaming , bubbles loss signal .
          
          Harmonic : balanced wine producing pleasant sensations
          
          Aromas : range of smells . There is talk of primary aromas , which are derived from the grape that wine is made , secondary aromas , which gets its preparation and tertiary aromas that develops during their upbringing .
          
          Aromatic : fragrant, rich aromas and tastes , which highlight the primary aromas wine.
          
          Rough : wine , contain too much tannin, produces the tactile sensation in the mouth.
          
          Astringent : dry feeling not to be confused with the bitter. Perceived mainly in the gums (producing the impression that the mucous contract ) .
          
          Attack : first impression of the wine in the mouth.
          
          Velvet : Silky , soft , mellow wine that caresses the palate .
          
          Austere : rough and grim, without complexities.
          
          Vinegary acetic, spoiled , disposable because of an infection.
          
          Azufrado : volcanic, hot and spicy smell. In some young wines can be harmless and fade into contact with air .
          
          Sugar : glucose and fructose that naturally possesses the grape which becomes much alcohol during fermentation. The rest is left is called residual sugar present in all wines , even dry .
          
          
          
          B:
          
          
          
          Balsamic : usually a defect that appears at certain targets that have retained much flavor Woods .
          
          Basto : coarse wine , rough, low quality .
          
          Soft : weak wine, no personality , lacking in character.
          
          Bouquet: actually summarizes all tertiary aromas derived from the wine during its aging , although the term is usually applied to describe the pleasant and distinctive aroma of a wine.
          
          Brief : wine whose flavor is diluted quickly , while subsequent sensations.
          
          Brioso : full of vitality , vigor and freshness.
          
          Bright: visual impression produced a wine of perfect clarity , with crystalline reflections.
          
          Brut : dry champagne or sparkling wine ( less than 15 grams of sugar per liter ) . The extra- brut is even drier (less than 6 grams). The nature , has no added sugar in your liquor issue .
          
          
          
          C:
          
          
          
          Character: wine has own distinctive characteristics in its category .
          
          Characteristic : reflecting the style and character of the grape, place of origin and even vintage.
          
          Meaty : wine dense , thick, filling mouth wide , less alcoholic bodied wine .
          
          Caste ( or race ) : noble wine that highlights the values ​​of the grape that is produced .
          
          Cooked : indistinct smell , hiding fruit and shows a lack of freshness.
          
          Complex: harmonious and balanced combination of different aromas and flavors.
          
          Cork ( smell ) : a wine flaw that has been infected smell of cork in poor condition and often confused with moldy smell. The French use the term to describe bouchonée .
          
          Burly : male and rich in spirit and vigor wine.
          
          Short : you have very little time on the palate. Not necessarily shoddy .
          
          Blend (or wine cut ) : a mixture of different wines and grape varieties .
          
          Creamy : smooth, rich in flavor and texture.
          
          Covered: dark red and opaque
          
          Body: weight and volume of wine in the mouth , often related to their alcohol content. Medium body , neither light nor heavy.
          
          
          
          D:
          
          
          
          Weak : Wine poorly defined , low in fruit, spirit or character.
          
          Delicate: sturdy little wine , but nice.
          
          Decrepit : wine at the end of its useful life, which is ruined or lost their virtues with age.
          
          Dejo : nuance or descriptor of an aromatic note in the aroma or taste of a wine.
          
          Delgado: little wine flavor and high acidity .
          
          Delicate : Sexy and balance in a light wine .
          
          Denso : more than big, with a lot of alcohol and extracts, rich color and full-bodied.
          
          Designation of Origin (DO): Indicates the place of origin of the wine , guaranteed by an organization whose goal is to protect the characteristics of the production area. Also the term Controlled Denomination of Origin ( DOC) .
          
          Tasteless : Shady wine off , tasteless .
          
          Gaunt : poor wine alcohol and dry extract.
          
          Unbalanced : poorly made ​​wine that has achieved harmony by not over-or any of its components.
          
          Stripped : reduced flavor , usually by excesses in the process of clarification.
          
          Faded : wine little consistency on the palate , which has lost its attributes. In many cases due to undesirable oxidation .
          
          Distinguished (or smart ): having refined quality traits of nobility and purity, with remarkable harmony.
          
          Hard : with excess tannin or acidity . Over time it may disappear .
          
          
          
          E:
          
          
          
          Cloying : heavy wine, overly sweet , without the appropriate acidity.
          
          Zippy : Markup , incisive character.
          
          Headline: wine to which has been added alcohol to stop fermentation and raise its alcoholic content .
          
          Musty : unpleasant odor that usually produces rust. Often confused with the smell of cork.
          
          Balance: Harmony between all components of the wine. Harmonious combination between acidity , sweetness , tannin and alcohol.
          
          Spicy : spicy aroma and flavor , spicy sensations.
          
          Sparkling wine (or sparkling) : sparkling wine , which has earned a second fermentation bubbles - spontaneous or induced , such as Champagne. In aerated wines effervescence is achieved by injection of carbon dioxide.
          
          Structure: is all about harmony is achieved between the tannins , acid , alcohol and sugar. You can talk about strong or weak structure.
          
          Abstract : soluble solids of a wine that determine their characteristics of color, aroma and flavor.
          
          
          
          F:
          
          
          
          Easy: smooth wine , easy texture, without protruding edges.
          
          Fatigued : freshly decanted or filtered. Aromas and confused , weak taste.
          
          Female does not mean weak, but has finesse, elegance , seduction .
          
          Fermentation: transformation of grape sugar into ethyl alcohol and carbon dioxide by yeast.
          
          Malolactic: process by which malic acid is converted to lactic acid , softening the wine.
          
          Fino : top quality . For Sherry , is the highest distinction , which has no mixing or is sweetened .
          
          Firm : with good tannins and / or acidity, with incisive taste.
          
          Flexible: easy to appreciate , with a winning combination of virtues. Soft, accommodating.
          
          Light : weak, weak. It may be a poor wine or a defect of decrepitude.
          
          Floral, flowery fragrance : scented flowers. It may be general or flower vine flowers in particular that is positive and bombastic .
          
          Fresco: young wine that preserves the vitality and acidity.
          
          Fruity fruity fruity or : is a wine that retains the scent of fresh grapes mature and has not been transformed during fermentation. It also applies to the finding of other fruits.
          
          
          
          G:
          
          
          
          Garra : steadiness and development potential.
          
          Generous : special wine raised in certain regions, such as Marsala and Oporto. Rich in alcohol and sugar.
          
          Greedy : I came with high residual sugars.
          
          Fatty : wine that fills the mouth , smooth and soft , full-bodied and rich in glycerin.
          
          Gray: very faint pink wine , fruity , firm, fresh color.
          
          
          
          H :
          
          
          
          Herbaceous : vegetable aromas and flavors. Your excess is undesirable because it relates to coarse young wines or made carelessly.
          
          
          
          I:
          
          
          
          Incisor : with excess acidity .
          
          Undecided : still not developed and can get more .
          
          Tasteless , bland : no flavor and very low acidity .
          
          
          
          Bland : not distinctive values ​​, which has almost nothing to offer.
          
          Vivid: opposite surface a. Indicates wealth and can be applied to color, bouquet and flavor.
          
          
          
          J :
          
          
          
          Young : cool, with the acidity of youth.
          
          
          
          L :
          
          
          
          Tears ( or legs) : footprints that mark the cells that descend from the inner walls of the cup after stirring the wine. They may be signs of a generous wine. Thick and well defined Tears reveal high alcohol content, glycerin and dissolved solids .
          
          Length: leaving an imprint that lingers in the mouth . Positive feature .
          
          Yeast: smell of yeast. Appears in wines with secondary fermentation. It searches the champagnes.
          
          Lightweight: low alcohol content and little body.
          
          Limpid : Clear
          
          Clean : no strange or unpleasant odors.
          
          Lineage: qualities born of the combination of climate, soil, strains and excellent production techniques .
          
          
          
          M:
          
          
          
          Wood distinctive and desirable odor derived from proper aging in wood ( oak is best ) . , However , can be negative excess contact between the wine and the container.
          
          Maderizado : Rusty wine pleasantly remembers little wood. Heavy smell , taste and dark color off in a white wine.
          
          Maduro: wine correctly maturity before beginning its decline. With rich ripe wine grapes are obtained in color, sweetness and riches .
          
          Magro : watery , poor, lacking in body.
          
          Malic ( malic acid) : raw apples fresh scent that can be found in some young wines . It is characteristic of some varieties of white grapes.
          
          Masculine, manly : -bodied wine , incisive , even aggressive .
          
          Mellow : soft , nice, no sharp edges or stridency .
          
          Metallic: defective wine undesired contact with metal elements .
          
          Honey: certain characteristic fragrance of sweet, ripe wines that may originate in their own grapes or an extended aging in bottle.
          
          Millesime : French word to distinguish a wine made in a year of bumper harvest , which is declared . It is used primarily in champagnes.
          
          Rust: undesirable taste due to defects in grapes or bad parking .
          
          Mordant : high acidity and high tannins that speak of a good young wine. You can soften over time.
          
          
          
          N:
          
          
          
          Nervous : body wine with high tannins, but still immature. It is indicating positive quality that can grow and, quieting , become a great wine.
          
          Neutral : not defined character. Usually the result of several blended wines that cancel each other .
          
          Noble: good size and lineage , with great elegance. Also often applied to describe more or less common or cheap wines with dignity.
          
          
          
          O:
          
          
          
          Opaque: sight , dull . The nose and mouth , weak, uninteresting .
          
          Rusty : Off and unpleasant taste in a wine- for various reasons - with excessive contact with air.
          
          
          
          Q:
          
          
          
          Past : sick, in poor condition. It can happen to wines with excessive breeding.
          
          Raisined : warm scent that reveals an elaboration from grapes with too much sun and little watering .
          
          Pasty : dry extract rich in glycerin.
          
          Flint : aromatic notes reminiscent of sparking flint or tinder that appears in certain white wines along with smoking.
          
          Bully : term used by the Spanish to appoint a vulgar , common poor quality wine .
          
          Penetrating : powerful , powerful aromas.
          
          Perfume : nice aromatic quality that often evokes flowers.
          
          Persistence: set of feelings that are kept and can be measured .
          
          Heavy: unbalanced wine with excess alcohol and tannins.
          
          Petillant : French term for wines with very light bubbles . View Needle Wines .
          
          Crushed with excess acetic acid, vinegar .
          
          Picante : young red wines with fresh acidity and attractive or white wines .
          
          Onion Skin ( pelure d' oignon for French ) : Used to describe something orange , reddish, acquire some red with age.
          
          Plano : not attributes , lacking acidity and fruit.
          
          Poor : lacking character or quality , though not necessarily bad or unacceptable.
          
          Powerful: very big
          
          Or aftertaste aftertaste : feelings that remain in the throat and nostrils after swallowing the wine. They can be negative if the wine is not good and positive way , point to a great wine that leaves a long and pleasant memory.
          
          Positive : designated and significant .
          
          Early: he has matured quickly for their age or vintage.
          
          Depth: wine that seems to have underground layers of flavor.
          
          Pungency: sensation on the tongue that causes the impact of release of carbon dioxide.
          
          
          
          R :
          
          
          
          Rancid ( smell ) : unpleasant odor impact that may be caused by bad corks and can vanish in minutes. Not so when the wine is affected by contact with grapes in poor condition. Some argue that in some wines, it is a species that can reach maderization exalt qualities.
          
          Breed: another word for the race, the caste of a wine.
          
          Recio : strong, masculine , with plenty of high alcohol and tannin .
          
          Round: well balanced, mature , harmonious , palatable , without edges .
          
          Refined : soft , delicate, elegant .
          
          Refreshing : with nice acidity that quenches thirst .
          
          Rico : intense and generous flavors produced by the set of fruit flavor , alcohol and extract .
          
          Rigid: something severe, perhaps immature, leaving not perceive aromas and flavors.
          
          Oak : important factor in the production of fine and complex wines . The oak barrels retain roughness and confer aromas and flavors when moderate positive and undesirable when their presence aggressively cover the wine.
          
          Robust: a good wine that fills the mouth , consistent with force , body , round.
          
          
          
          S :
          
          
          
          Tasty: some young quality white fresh , vigorous and lively.
          
          Sano : is the first condition that has to have a wine. Your health is revealed in a transparent aspect, clean scents and flavors , flawless .
          
          Sap sap wine is correctly and taste and pronounced , lively aromas.
          
          Seasoned : rich , spicy.
          
          Dry: that is not sweet, no residual sugars.
          
          Silky: it has a firm texture , but soft on the palate . It is in good dessert wines.
          
          Semi - sweet : containing abundant natural sugar, but does not dessert wine (although not combine with meals).
          
          Semi - dry : with a bit of residual sugar, but dry enough to aperitif or to accompany certain foods.
          
          Sensual : opulence of flavor and texture that hits the senses.
          
          Severe: hard , uncompromising , perhaps immature.
          
          Suave: silky and velvety , mellow, nice touch. Harmony of tannins and acidity.
          
          Superficial: that is not intense nor deep .
          
          Sutil : qualities evenings complexity manifest.
          
          
          
          T:
          
          
          
          Tannic : means , usually a tough and astringent wine.
          
          Tannins: preservative substances extracted from the skins and seeds of grapes. Affect the color , texture and flavor of the wine .
          
          Terroir ( terroir in French) is the term and concept that refers to all ecologically that integrates and combines in the soil , the climate and the characteristics of a land where vines are grown items.
          
          Toast , toast . Pleasant aromas that often wield great whites and champagnes.
          
          Quiet : or needle or foaming . Used to designate wines basis for the production of sparkling .
          
          
          
          V :
          
          
          
          Vanilla : distinctive aromatic substance tannic wine usually conferred by wood .
          
          Varietal : wine made from grapes with the same variety. May be 100 % varietal . According to the rules permitted by law , to be called varietal, must have a prevalence of up to 75 % of a single strain .
          
          Veiled : with little clarity or transparency.
          
          Green: immature wine made ​​from unripe grapes .
          
          Old : too mature , lacking freshness.
          
          Vigorous : young wine, positive , healthy and vital flavor.
          
          Vinous : having natural aroma and flavor of wine . It is good and pleasant , has strong character and intense qualities.
          
          Vintage category of port wines produced in years with exceptional vintages . In Champagne, says his add up to an exceptional harvest .
          
          Vitality: apply fresh tasting and young or old wine that keeps youth conditions.
          
          Volatile ( volatile acidity ) to a greater or lesser extent, is present in all wines . Your excess is undesirable and may be the first sign for acetic deterioration.
          
        Voluptuous : balance between soft, sweet , degree, fruity and ripe . < / p> Please help Google Translate improve quality for your language here. Google Translate for Business:Translator Toolkit