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Wine Round         


Some historians believe that the man learned of the wine before even learning to cultivate . It is assumed that the genus Vitis , which comprises all domestic - vines appeared remote Tertiary Era . The Vitis sezanensis a fossil strain of more than 50 million years , was found in some parts of Europe . About 12 million years ago . Much more recent is the closest geographically Neanderthal presence , dating back 60,000 years in their first remains in Gibraltar. The first Homo sapiens appear 40,000 years ago. During the Upper Paleolithic, about 16,000 years ago until the Neolithic , in our area we have numerous representations, dolmens as Giant and Giganta or Encinas Drunk and whose most notable contribution represent what the cave paintings of the Caves of the sink.         

wine appears while civilization itself , so the first evidence of the cultivation of vineyards seem to date from the year 7000 BC, in a region located south of the Black Sea, in the fertile plains of Sumer , in ancient Mesopotamia . By 5500 B.C. appears on the peninsula Campaniforme culture or more precisely Beaker Culture . Around 3700 aDC see the megalithic culture and agriculture and reducing the activity of the wandering tribes.         

winemaking was consummated with a very simple method : the grapes are gathered in large baskets, are squeezing their feet and then the coveted wine is obtained. The fermentation was carried out in large earthen jars , which in turn were smeared with grease inside to waterproof . In 4,000 BC are dated the first plantings of vines in this area , specifically in Mazagon and Cadiz (J : A: Walter ) , as evidenced by the pollen studies Laguna Mother and the Cadiz coast , where the accidental presence of vines rule wild by the high concentration of pollen found in these strata. For the emergence of cultures that use metals should expect around 3000 to 2500 AD. Their geographical distribution is higher and it is considered that the search for metals brought significant migration flows to the Serrania de Ronda. From this period are numerous reservoirs and important pieces found and documented as the Sword of Ronda.         

already understand that wine making , was rudimentary but important part of the food diet. We have plants in organized crops and subsequent fermentation of the juice in earthen vessels .  

the time Tartesos appearing as a civilization in the Guadalquivir valley and margins. Historical data provided by the Greeks speak of two cultures present: Celts and Iberians , and a few other north south , it seems that both came to Ronda. The Celts come to the peninsula in the first millennium BC. Here would come the first civilizing of our region that were possibly the descendants Bastulos or part of Tartesos born Arunda .

The Greek historian Thucydides said in the V century BC the peoples of the Mediterranean emerged from barbarism when they learned to cultivate the olive and the vine. The eastern peninsular coast was first occupied by the Phoenicians, approximately around 700 BC . Was no certainty of their location in Acinipo and Ronda from them begin an intensive grape growing and marketing a large scale, although pollens found of more ancient rule out that they were the introducers of cultivation. Founded Gadir (Cádiz ) and Malaca (Málaga ) , filling the Mediterranean coast of factories who traded with inland cities . Is the Phoenician era that has left more traces of wine production and marketing .

For a time it was thought that these settlers were limited to importing wines from the Syrian- Palestinian , costa recent studies conclude that many amphorae were manufactured in Hispanic South: " ... that already existed production developed enough to proceed to its packaging in a container intended to trade. " Malaga and Cadiz in the coastal zone, can be dated to the late eighth century BC an important wine production. This demonstrated the existence of a widespread culture of the vine in time before the romanization .

most installed Greeks north of the coast, Rhodes (Rosas ) and Emporion ( Ampurias ) in the current region of Catalonia , finding the Iberians and giving the first references to this town. Parallel start breaking free on the southern coasts and surrounding reaching what they would call Runda

Plato said that "wine makes the person who drinks more jovial than it was before , and the more you eat the more you feel filled with high hopes and a sense of power, until finally, fully proud, abounds in all kinds of speech and action and all kinds of daring ran the 550 when destroyed Tartessos , a small period of peace and conflict with its indigenous inhabitants Phoenicians against brothers , come the Carthaginians in their support, this will not be just had just banish the Phoenicians of these lands twelve centuries after their arrival . Carthage and Rome finally enter into a series of wars ( Punic Wars ) for hegemony in the western Mediterranean.

After the defeat in the First Punic War , Carthage try to recoup their losses in Sicily , Sardinia and Corsica , increasing its dominance in Iberia . Hamilcar Barca, Hannibal Carthaginian generals and other ancient Phoenician colonies located in Andalusia and Levante under their control and then proceed to the conquest or extent of its influence on indigenous peoples . In the year 219 BCE offense occurs Hannibal against Rome , taking the Iberian Peninsula as a base and including a large percentage of Hispanics in his army.         

Roman occupation ( 206 BC - V century)

After the Second Punic War between 218 BC and 201 BC , may be considered within the power of Rome Iberian Peninsula, as our cities ACINIPO And ARUNDA campaign occupation after the Carthaginian expulsion was quick . Ronda stay within the province called Hispania Ulterior Baetica depend administratively Cadiz convents or hispalenses and becomes core of communication between the two parts of Andalusia.

ACINIPO reach its splendor , enabling that were to coin money . In it the bunch of grapes and grape leaves , leading product in the area represented , talked about the " LAND OF WINE " as translation of the name . After Caesar's victory over Pompey reach the title of city , being elevated to the status of municipality , so your neighbors acquired the right to be governed by their own laws.

Round City was founded by the Romans, specifically by Scipio , who built a castle, seat of the Military Order Arundensis . His original name was Arunda , and later Laurus , apparently by derivation of Laurel, name of the castle at the foot of the first settlement was built.

In 195 BC , the Romans divided the Iberian territory into two areas : Nearer Spain and Hispania Ulterior. Subsequently divided into three provinces : Baetica , and Lusitania Tarraconense organization that lasted until the late empire . Strabo , in the time of Augustus, gives reference grape growing and wine exports originating in Turdetania . But would especially Pliny and Columella (born in Cadiz area ) who would seek more explicit references of wine and grapes in imperial times .

They refer to a type of grape, coccolobin , appears to be a variety of clear Iberian origin , which again confirms the existence of an indigenous viticulture. In times of Caligula, Philip of Thessalonica , says Hispanics are sour wine , Ovid makes fun of them , and even the Juvenal , although referring to came from Sagunto also mocks Hispanics wines. It may be, however, that differences exist between the different wines and some were more appreciated than other romanization process understood as incorporating the language , customs and the Roman economy began about 110 BC to the and with all his strength would last until the mid- third century. A population of about 3,000 people are estimated to ACINIPO . The process was so intense that three Hispanic : Trajan, Hadrian and Theodosius were emperors of Rome , and prominent figures such as philosopher Seneca and the poets Martial and Lucan were also from Hispania . Roman wines apparently had extraordinary properties for conservation. This fact alone suggests its high quality.

Large crops were discussed and even drinks for longer than seems possible ; Optidiano famous wine was consumed even 125 years after its manufacture. The Romans had everything necessary to age the wine. Not being constrained , as happened to the Greeks, clay amphorae , but they also used them , but they had barrels and glass bottles very similar to today . It is reasonable to assume that those inhabitants of Acinipo drank quite similar to the current wine . Produced young with rudimentary methods, dry or strong as to blow the Year

Roman culture system vines still practiced . Pliny related that Roman legionaries carried sticks with vines in their campaign teams , which were progressively implemented in the conquered places. And the Romans heirs of Greek learning about wine - they added sugar to increase their alcohol, established the use of pruning , refinement in the fermentation process .

first wort that was obtained was used for the preparation of ' mulsum ' , for which mixed with honey and allowed to age to serve as an appetizer. The rest of the wort is allowed to ferment in huge vats called ' deoliae ' . After fermentation, the wine is clarified with ash, clay , marble dust , resin , pitch and also , like the Greeks, with seawater. Was packaged in jars of clay , he inscribed the year of harvest , features and allowed to age in the upper rooms of the house near the chimney . The wines of the Western - Turdetania - bética came to rival the most famous wines of antiquity, corroborated by some underwater archaeological sites where amphorae were found in which was inscribed the name of ' vinus gaditanus ' that we were part of .        

Germanic invasions and the Visigoths ( V century - 711 )

fall of the Roman Empire
In the Serrania de Ronda , as in other provinces , the Empire fell gradually , with almost simultaneous processes of ' desromanización "of the Roman Empire in Hispania, ie a weakening of central authority in the III , IV centuries and V , and the " romanization " of the Germanic tribes , such as the adoption of Roman law is evident in the Lex Gothorum (Law of the Goths ) , conversion to Christianity after the fall of the Empire, the Swabians , errands by Rechila , took possession of Arunda and Acinipo ( Ronda la Vieja , north of Arunda ) . Subsequently, Atanagildo and Byzantines took the city until Leovigild expelled .


In the winter of 406 , using the fusion of the Rhine, the Vandals, Suebi and Alans invaded the empire with great force Meanwhile, the Visigoths, who had taken Rome two years ago, came to the region in 412, and extended its influence in the Peninsula gradually displacing the Vandals and Alans in North Africa , without their mark on many dejasen Iberian culture. , Moved the capital of the Visigothic kingdom of Toledo. Paso Round renamed UNDA .

The Dark Ages

Interestingly, Andalucía never entered the period of illiteracy we call the Dark Ages, who suffered Britain , Gaul , Lombardy, and Germany in those years. The reason is that the Visigoths respected institutions and the Roman laws , maintaining a stable infrastructure and historical for most of the range between 415, when , according to tradition, began the Visigoth kingdom, and 711 , when it was destroyed by the Arabs . Also, the proximity to the Mediterranean Sea made ​​it easier to trade and interaction between Ronda and other cultures , especially the Byzantine Empire, which provided its influence on artistic styles and technologies developed, it was important to highlight the tradition of centuries possessed issues in winemaking and surely contributed to this land rich in that production. Actually occurred in 552 the Byzantine occupation of southern peninsula , which lasted until the reign of Suintila

Arab Conquest .

711 : After the death of King Witiza , nobles and bishops of the peninsula chosen by king Roderick ( known in history by Don Rodrigo ) , duke of Baetica . The sons of a king wanted Witiza Aquila , Duke of Tarragona , making pacts with the Arabs arrival through Don Julian , count of Ceuta.

Tarik conquered Toledo and León reaches ; Muza conquest reaches Seville and Mérida ( 712) . The son of Muza completed the conquest of the peninsula, with the exception of the Cantabrian and Pyrenean mountain areas passing Frankish territory .

In August 711 , Ronda was occupied by the Berber chief Ben Zaide Kesadi The Sebseki unopposed. Your name during the Muslim rule was Izn -Rand Onda, Castle Town .

Abu Hilal Nur Ben Abi Qurra , go into the city and declares the ineptitude of the caliph Hixen III , transforming , between 766 and 1015 , Ronda independent kingdom with properties that would cover part of Cádiz , Córdoba , Málaga , Sevilla , Almeria and Jaen.

In 1059 Motadhid annexed it to his kingdom of Seville , becoming Prince of Cordoba , Algeciras and Ronda.

In 773, Abd ar-Rahman I proclaimed the Emirate of Córdoba, politically freeing the Spanish Muslims and 929 Rahman III proclaimed the Caliphate of Córdoba , which represents the final separation of the Caliphate of Baghdad.

Despite the known Koranic prohibition , drinking wine and brandy was completely normal and there are many quotes that state: it knows that the alal - Shaqundi Malaga wine was famous , in autumn, when it came time for the harvest the families of Granada had the habit of leaving the city to wander the mountains vineyard to vineyard . Mohtar ' Abbadi ( ... ) also says that the wine of Granada , or grenache, was reputed for its abundance . "

The Sevillian doctor Avenzoar write this song :
"It Supported cheeks in hands / surprised us all sunrise / we had not stopped drinking all night until we get drunk / Wine is vindictive . They do fall / in my mouth and it makes me fall ."

Ronda ? Bobastro called ? .
According to some authors , Ronda was referenced Bobastro and some descriptions of the time as we aim :
On 21 April 923 tube place the site of the city by Abderrahman III and chronic siege relates how the city was surrounded by great walls and on top of a rock and very steep rocks at his feet ran a river surrounded by large tracts of vineyards, so it is so ordered that all the vineyards surrounding the city to deprive his enemies of their livelihood was cut off .

Jorge Alonso precisely indicates the name Guadalevin derive from Guad - River And Vin - Vinae vineyards in Latin, bone , River vineyards or wine .

The importance of the vine , wine and liquor is more than evidenced , being made across the mountains one of the main sources of income, " BOOKS OF divisions " , the large number of vineyards and wineries that are left notes Arabs to their march .

Round since the days of the caliphate , was later kingdom of Taifa , belonging to Sevilla , with the Almoravids or your last stage benimerín - Nazarite , was always in both economic gain and political , in some periods to be practically the center of power and especially desire , increasing its importance throughout the Muslim and Christian world .

Kingdom of Castile and León The surrender of Granada

In 1230 a real legal and definitive union of Castile and León occurs when Ferdinand III received his mother Berengaria ( in 1217 ) the Kingdom of Castile and his father Alfonso IX ( in 1230 ) the Lion .

From this period the conquest of Arab lands by Christians begins to accelerate until its climax in 1492 with the fall of the Kingdom of Granada .

In 1315 the king of Granada Ysmael , finding himself beset by Christians, called for help to the King of Morocco, offering round as a reward, a new kingdom comprising Algeciras and Ronda created this being its capital and its king Abomelique . This led to his kingdom to be practically the center of Al Andalus

In 1469 , secretly marry Isabel and Fernando . This link would end up producing the union of the kingdoms of Castile and Aragon in 1479.

Before that, between 1474 , the year of the death of Henry IV , and 1479 appears a civil war over the succession to the crown of Castile between supporters and supporters of Juana Isabel Beltraneja , legitimate daughter and sister Henry IV , respectively , married to the king of Portugal , who had won the favor of the union had occurred Juana of Castile with Portugal.

On Sunday May 22, 1485 falls conquered Ronda. During the war were destroyed many of the orchards and vineyards plantations , since the strategy of conquest passed by the cutting and burning of all fruitful ground , granting the same privileges to the city of Toledo and Seville.

The camp of the kings in battle , Real Site was placed on the top front of the wall in what today would be the convent of San Francisco , who ordered the construction of thanksgiving , the cover of Elizabethan type this all decorated with bunches grape vine leaves entwined , referring no doubt to the plantations that surrounded it.

The Repartimiento was then not enough to conquer, had also to get a new faithful to winning people to settle in these lands. In fact the settlers were men of arms and had the " obligation to attend all boasting that they were called " so , a garrison was maintained without having to pay salary and especially foreshadowing future uprisings Mudejars

"By order of the distribution and good governance of the noble city of Ronda" of the Catholic Monarchs is created, in 1485 , a census of settlers , according to the military merits and their different social levels prevailing at the time, ordered divide the conquered : bed , warehouses, mills, fountains , shops, fields and vineyards . The task will be assigned to different " deliverers " creating quite unhappy , but the actual rules were pretty clear , its review being necessary on several occasions and produced occasional abuse by bursting .

Draws attention to the importance they attach to the rondeñas vines , so much so that it ensures that each of the neighbors will be granted to a greater or lesser extent, which does not happen with all other wealth to go around, they could stay homeless or wheat but not one he wanted to remain without wine . The lack of measurements by the haste of time what would compel hotfix " nones tube any order in the measures taken for these vines , except for pieces." It is definitely the most important crop in the time allowance ( both Arab and Christian ) under the profuse documentation generated already amazing its huge production.

400.32 aranzadas vineyards spread over fruit between 505 and 152 free aranzadas neighbors are arranged for new plantations called hawthorn . Not only wealth is counted also facilitates and encourages new planting stakes nailed anyone vineyards in one of these free lands became the owner thereof , the property is accessed only by this culture , "as long as no pasasen more than two years without working " . Others like olive encontrase were residual and used within the same vineyards in very small number , so the mountain was always short on oil. This first deal is based on erroneous measurements in the second conducted by Serrano surface increases.

The most serious Almansa Acien approximate calculation according to Ronda ( city and suburban ) an area of ​​around 250 hectares of vineyards , which would amount to a production after the conquest of about 700,000 liters of wine, for a population of 500 residents . To which we would add what occurred in the mountain villages . This would also figure that would be producing by the Arabs before his fall , even if part of the grapes used for pacification and raw consumption .

reconquest ended in 1492 with the capture of Granada by the Catholic Monarchs who annexed to the Crown of Castile. In the same year the expulsion of the Jews, the discovery of America , on behalf of the crown, is produced by Christopher Columbus .

By that time the figure between 20,000 and Ronda mountains set . Of which , according to Federico Lozano , 50% were Jewish , 34% Arab and 16% only of Christian settlers .

Curiously there was a turnaround , while the price of grain was exported to America doubled , wine multiply its value by eight forty years after the conquest of Mexico , usually a fleet of the New World carried on each trip 150,000 barrels of Andalusian wine In these circumstances a large expansion of vineyards in our region was undertaken , reaching roturarse mountains and meadows . Sherry represented in Magellan's fleet so important that the sums devoted to buy were higher than what was spent on arms and ammunition

Ronda was the big focus . Mudejar uprising in 1501, which later spread to much of the province of Malaga. Muslims were defeated , many of them were sold as slaves and others expelled.

Born in 1550 Vicente Espinel , musician , poet, clergyman and a few more things , including vintner . Received from his family as recorded one Chaplaincy some properties comprising houses and " several vineyards in the Torrecilla de la Dehesa ."

From 1568 to 1572 . 's Moorish revolt occurs , being round one of its main centers , was harshly repressed and pauperized population , from 10,372 inhabitants in 1587 and later 9,436 inhabitants in 1591 ,

In 1610 the expulsion of the Moors occurs as Andrea Navagiero " at a time when this land dominated the Moors was much more beautiful houses and vineyards are ruining because the Moors are missing and they are what keeps the plowed fields because the Spanish are not very industrious , or planted or grown . "

The population is estimated at about 11,700 inhabitants and 1,650 from 25,000 in 1675 , but this figure appears unreliable ( for Sorting of ducats to 20 leagues cities of Malaga

Hapsburg Dynasty

Carlos I begins the reign of the Habsburg dynasty or House of Austria, with which Spain will meet its greatest territorial expansion through the conquest of extensive territories in America and other overseas colonies. In addition , King Charles V ( Charles I of Spain ) was crowned Holy Roman Emperor which added extensive Europeans crown territories , later Philip II increases its territories in America and encircles the crown of Portugal with its overseas territories , initiating short Iberian Union became the largest economic and military power in the world .

the wine of Lepe XVI is still exported to England as well as Malaga , but it is undoubtedly the Jerez broth broths , so we would be the kind of wine that would occur predominantly Nearby, in addition to sweet, red type .

Shakespeare puts into the mouth of Sir John Falstaff ( 1597 ) A memorable eulogy of Jerez shows : " A good sherry has double virtue : we upload to the brain , we dry and clumsy fools crude vapors that envelop ; seeks a rich swift , vivid, witty, understanding subtle, spirited and charming fantasy through the verb originates best talent there . The second virtue of our excellent sherry : I heated the blood, which previously communicated cold and limp liver that whiteness , that pallor which is the emblem of timidity and cowardice , but Sherry heats and circulates inside the extremities. Light up your face and this , like a pillar tap the alert to all citizens of this tiny kingdom that is man , and both troops and vital small inner spirits come to the heart , which gained such escort and full of running acts of bravery , is the sherry that comes this courage . ( ... ) If I had a thousand sons , infuse them as the first principle of humanity to give up the concoctions without force and given to the sack . "

In the eighteenth we can say that in all the regions of Andalusia where the terrain or weather permitting existed vineyards and production of must or wine. Andalusian wines are so appreciated abroad getting an enviable presence outside our borders to the point so hard not experience the crisis in Spain in the seventeenth .

The House of Bourbon in Spain and Enlightenment

The House of Bourbon reigned in Spain 1700, with the coronation of Philip V. Soon after, in 1702 the War of Spanish Succession begins .

period known as the Enlightenment in Spain the policy covering the reigns of the Bourbons from Felipe V in 1700 to Carlos IV abruptly ending his reign in 1808 , picking up the movement of the Age of Enlightenment that starts in France and is the eve of the French Revolution.

Jerez and Malaga areas , specialize in wines with strong external demand, while most of the other Andalusian wine regions have a particular relationship to the internal market , in particular the regional or just local . , The Ronda wine production is marketed towards these two sides so close geographically , which sells alcohol must or wine ( easier to transport.

Round 1,730 population 12,375 and 10,098 serious as Ensenada in 1752.
For 1,797 will be 18,000 according Square Prieto.
From hbs 18,678 for 1826 and 17,000 according Miñano Square in 1834 according to J. ..
To go down to about 12,000 in 1836 ( Canga Argüelles ) war of independence was particularly bloody in our Serrania de Ronda .

Despite the ups and downs in the town of Ronda in those years , it is time represents one of the most important from a cultural point of view as important and significant monuments are built like Ronda, the Bullring and the Arch of Philip V.

Javier Maldonado Rosso says that most of those wines had little to do with the wines of today. "Until the last third of the eighteenth century Andalusian winery produced essentially must ( ... ) young wines , . Whom headed slightly vinous liquor, in some cases, in order that they might remain unchanged in their transfers to other climatic zones. maturing and aging of wines with vintages system was also practiced , but in very small quantities and certain socio- professional sectors because the habit of demand is mostly favored the young wines . "

In the last third of the eighteenth century fashion imposes doomed to taste wines of British consumers , major customers Andalusian wines , causing significant changes in our wine industry , both in cultivation techniques and processing and marketing . According

Miro Vineyard Aurora is responsible splendid development of our region from the sixteenth to the eighteenth centuries , the olive being a secondary culture presents alternating with others and in single spots.

To approximate the wine production in Ronda, we mean a statement of the time: (Military Memory of Ronda to April 12, 1813 ) " These are the productions of wheat and barley can regulate 100,000 bushels of first and second 25,000 each year. 35,000 pounds of wine " mean more than one million liters of wine were produced in the end of Round conjoined they occur in the mountains could be around one million liters and we have references to the great productions of some mountain villages : jubrique , Faraj, flowerbed , Benalauria , Gaucin . El Burgo etc .... Much of this production would be channeled to the production of spirits which became very famous and were wanted by the English merchants of Gibraltar.

nineteenth century.

early nineteenth century was marked in Spain by the French occupation by Napoleon's army and later weak reign of Ferdinand VII.This century was also marked by great political instability n the several constitutions succeeded ; Regencies ; Reigns as Isabel II Amadeo I of Savoy Alfonso XII; interim governments as the Democratic Presidential term and the First Republic

During the French occupation the population was subject to the payment of many taxes . Moreti up in his History of Round the daily demands of food that claimed the French to our council , including the largest item was intended for wine ( 58 pounds and a half) and spirits (20 pounds ) and many other foods . ( 1 arroba = 16 L )

The situation came to suffocate the local economy , deciding that a commission expusiese the French commander of the city, crossing the delicate situation , as is reported that the livestock industry has been reduced to less than half . Nor farming lies in its better moments of the twelve banks of gardens that make up this term are ruined in their third and aranzadas of 2,500 vines only produce half " ( 695 hectares produce unos2.432.500 liters). This was really due to huge Rondeños who took arms, leaving normal occupations. So much so that in just three years the population dropped from 15,600 to just 5,000 HB , mostly elderly, women and children. These figures are quickly recovered thanks to the extraordinary development of the wine industry and strong exports ( gold wine season in Andalusia ) .

born 1809-1835 the main laws of the Confiscation , passed into private hands some 30,000 hectares in the term of Ronda. Many of these were devoted to vineyards , some already were , is the heyday of vineyards in our region , becoming such, that was one reason to endanger forests Spanish fir , which suffered a marked recoil.

Pascual Madoz 1845 performs statistical - Geographical - Historical Dictionary of Spain and its overseas possessions . In the performed a detailed study of the whole region , observed that in all the towns and villages lot of wine and brandy is produced in most is the dominant crop and at least one major source of vital income in the mountain economy. grape treading " bare foot grape " was pressed after the press such as " Beam " and then moved on with the horses bottles to wineries to wine there , with his spoils brandy and vinegar. the production of spirits was , as we have said , very important. It was sold to British merchants brought to Gibraltar, where I export among other places Suez Canal workers at this time of its construction ...

Reign of Fernando VII.

Once the Napoleonic troops are expelled from Spain , Fernando VII (nicknamed the desired ) begins to reign in Spain from 1814 to 1833. This reign was marked by three stages: Stage Absolutist (1814-1820) , The Liberal Triennium (1820-1833) and the Ominous Decade ( 1823-1833 ) .

Reign of Elizabeth II.

Fernando VII died on September 29, 1833 when her daughter Isabel II had only three years old. During the minority of his daughter, Mary took the throne Cristina wife of Ferdinand VII. In 1843 Elizabeth was declared of age only 13 years so that I could start governing . Elizabeth II 's reign was marked by successive Carlist Wars and the regency of General Espartero. This reign ended in 1868 with the victory of the Glorious Revolution in which the General Prim expelled Reign of Elizabeth II and established a provisional government.

Democratic Presidential term .

Democratic Presidential term is known from the period of the history of Spain since the triumph of the revolution of September 1868 until December 1874 ruling that marked the beginning of the period known as the Restoration.

rondeña population would be around 19,307 (Rodrigues Martines ) , this evolutionary sense dragging dramatically broken by the appearance of xilofera in 1868 , this dynamic population breaks and begins a decline throughout the region , producing emigration to larger cities such as Malaga and Sevilla and to a lesser number to Argentina , the disappearance of one of the main livelihood for laborers , porters , turners , blacksmiths, and coopers odreros , common occupations in our region .

Reign of Amadeo of Savoy ( 1870-1873 )

After the revolution of 1868 in Spain was proclaimed a constitutional monarchy . Finally on November 16, 1870 with the support of the progressive wing of the Parliament and of the Chartists , Amadeo is elected King.

First Spanish Republic.

(1873-1874) The First Spanish Republic was proclaimed on February 11, 1873 by the Parliament lasted eleven months in four presidents succeeded .

Bourbon Restoration

known as the Bourbon Restoration period spanning from the pronouncement of General Martinez Campos in 1874 , ending with the First Republic , and the proclamation of the Second Republic on April 14, 1931 . This era began with the reign of Alfonso XII son of Elizabeth II. a policy of this reign was marked by the shift of parties with which the Conservative and Liberal party were alternating in government.

In 1877 , the population had tripled in the province of Málaga in a hundred years , the main reason was the huge vineyard development by the prestige of the "mountain wine" or wines mountain. But the appearance of phylloxera in 1878 caused great economic and demographic crisis in Round

At this time , namely December 15, 1873 , began the famous " Round Cork Litigation " for the right to harvest cork municipal property, a real fortune.

long desired fact happens in these days . opening Algeciras- Bobadilla railway This would help significantly to the input and output for major wine cellars end of this century and the next. Musts and alcohols La Mancha and Cordoba were brought and exported to Jerez and Malaga in bulks and servants , while sold in all markets, including foreign .

Start a sad time for laborers Ronda , in which a real famine was exacerbated with the loss of crops Jerez , where they used to go vintage wing lived .

Reign of Alfonso XIII.

It was proclaimed King at his birth and reigned until his death.1 . His mother held the regency during the minority of the King. In 19022 , at age 16 , he was declared of age and assumed the constitutional functions of Head of State.

His reign was marked by government control by the army with the figures of Miguel Primo de Rivera , General Berenguer and Admiral Aznar.

dictatorship of Primo de Rivera

September 13, 1923 the Captain General of Catalonia, Miguel Primo de Rivera revolts against the government and gives a coup . After the municipal elections of 1931 , April 14 was proclaimed the Second Republic and ending the Bourbon Restoration in Spain .

In 1877 , the population had tripled in the province of Málaga in a hundred years , the main reason was the huge vineyard development by the prestige of the "mountain wine" or wines mountain. But the appearance of phylloxera in 1878 caused great economic and demographic crisis in Ronda, this was the dependence of the sector.

nineteenth century, according to Maldonado Rosso, produce one of the most genuine wines of Andalusia fine . Wine , along with the brandy, for many decades would be the flagship of the wineries. Despite the severe commercial crisis of the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries, due to abuse of adulteration in wines of Malaga and Jerez crisis that shook the wine sector.

Spanish Second Republic

The Second Republic was proclaimed on April 14, 1931 , after the departure of King Alfonso XIII, in view of the adverse results from monarchical nominations in major provincial capitals in municipal elections held on April 12, 1931 , as well as the finding of a lack of popular support from both political and social strata as the military or law enforcement .

recovery phase began in the thirties , is confirmed by the boom that followed between forty and sixty years of the twentieth century. The system of hatcheries and sills , unique to the framework of Jerez, influenced Western Andalusian wine bar , dragging behind areas of the county, The Alcor , and to some extent Montilla- Moriles , rondeña production also was infected , in fact was how our upbringings who acquired wineries , reaching very high quality wines as Fino Narvaez NARVAEZ cELLARS or wINERY Solera Summit URRUTI PEREZ .

Spanish Civil War

Spanish Civil War (July 17, 1936 - April 1, 1939 ) , has been regarded as the preamble of the Second World War drama Apart from the civil conflict that resulted , led by the Nationalist victory . General Franco marked the establishment of a dictatorship for thirty-six years.