1 2 3 4 5 6
It has been postulated to endothelial dysfunction as the primary event in the chain of events leading to atheroma formation . The causal explanation is probably related to the intake of antioxidants , making red wine, which would protect the nitric oxide , the main regulator of endothelial function and is produced by endothelial cells. The antioxidants in red wine , polyphenols, particularly flavonoids, would be responsible for the maintenance of vascular activity, especially in individuals who ingested fat diet that induces oxidative stress.
          
                 


          WINE AND REDUCE CHOLESTEROL ATHEROSCLEROSIS
          A study by the Hospital Clínic of Barcelona confirmed that moderate wine consumption has healthy effects on the cardiovascular system.
          
          Hospital Clínic of Barcelona and the Foundation for Research Wine and Nutrition ( FIVIN ) , presented at the headquarters of the Ministry of Agriculture, Fisheries and Food, a European study on wine and cardiovascular disease.
          
          Concluded that daily glasses xuatro men and two women reduce by 30% the factor causing arterioesclorosis . The drink also decreases by 96 % bad cholesterol.
          Research shows what other studies already announced for more than a decade ago : the antioxidant and anti-inflammatory qualities of wine cause an inhibitory effect on the early stages of atherosclerosis .
          
          The novelty of the study is that for the first time the influence of alcohol intake was analyzed in humans , unlike other they drew conclusions from epidemiological analysis.
          In other studies , scientists had merely found that the population taking a certain amount of alcohol abstainers had lower cardiovascular risk quelos .
          
          Team led by Alvaro Urbano Marquez, chief of the Hospital Clinic Internal Medicine , the study sheds light on the mechanisms of action of the wine in small quantities whose intake reduces mortality from heart disease and strokes .
          
          The goal of the european wine and cardiovascular disease, 3 -year , was to study the mechanisms involved in reducing coronary risk in moderate wine drinkers .
          
          Checked , so that moderate wine consumption as a beverage rich in polyphenols, may have positive health effects , message coming transmitting Research Foundation Wine and Nutrition ( FIVIN ) since its inception in 1992, when came the first reports on the results of scientific research in relation to the nutritional value and beneficial properties.         


          WINE HARMFUL EFFECTS OF SNUFF counteract
          ATHENS - . Greeks Scientists at University Hospital in Athens showed that red wine may counteract the harmful effects of snuff -level blood vessels.
          Cardiologists and Christos Papamichael Lakakis John , authors of the research , say enough beneficial substances in two wine glasses to alleviate the toxic effects of a cigarette.
          At the annual meeting of the European Congress of Cardiology noted , for example, that the polyphenols that are in the drink will help restore damage observable arteries an hour after it has been smoked , but did not believe that its beneficial effect is noted in chronic smokers .
          Source : Third digital .
          In 1991 , 35 million Americans with viewers , doctors Curt Ellison and Serge Renaud presented the idea that the lower cardiovascular mortality was due to the French daily consumption of 300-400 ml. wine . Indeed , despite having identical levels of blood cholesterol , the rate of cardiovascular mortality in France is a third of that seen in U.S. This revelation sparked worldwide interest in large confirm the beneficial role of the wine consumed regularly and in moderation , and describe the way how this happens in the body.
          The symposium " Public Health and Moderate Wine Consumption ," held in November 1997 at the Pontifical Catholic University , international experts and national experts reviewed epidemiological evidence demonstrating the beneficial effect of moderate wine consumption and perhaps other alcoholic beverages - cardiovascular disorders . At the end of the day a roundtable allowed to generate some consensus among the participants:
          • The safe intake of wine and other alcoholic beverages is 2 drinks per day for men and 1 for women.
          • The pattern of healthy eating is one that deals with the number , the opportunity and the frequency or regularity of consumption. The pattern of consumption is healthier and hopefully regular daily , 1 or 2 glasses of wine, especially during meals. The most opportune time to consume wine is one in which a subsequent alert maxima of the senses is not required.
          • Current scientific evidence favors the consumption of wine over other alcoholic beverages . The preeminence of wine as a beneficial factor is explained , first , because they consume during meals and, secondly , by the flavonoids , compounds of the type of polyphenols , which contains wine , particularly red wine.
          • Chilean - like other - should benefit from regular moderate wine consumption population .
          • The moderation in the consumption of alcoholic beverages is acquired and learned in family. Family environment is necessary for children and young people acquire the habit of moderation , drinking in the hours of meals with their parents . Other environments are not safe for children and / or young consume alcoholic beverages.
          • Some people should not drink alcoholic beverages. Pregnant women should not drink alcoholic beverages , unless until there is a conclusive assessment of potential risks. Alcoholics or problem drinkers can consume only if the treating doctor 's advice explicitly and precisely . People with liver damage and, in general , persons receiving medical or drug treatment , should consult their doctor.
          
          
          Red wine consumption may reduce risk of ovarian cancer
          Occasional and moderate women who consume red wine may reduce the risk of ovarian cancer, scientists said the Institute of Medical Research Queensland, Australia . The study showed that low levels of consumption , even a glass a week was associated with a 20% lower risk of ovarian cancer, while women who drank one or two drinks a day and abstainers , had the half as likely to develop this type of cancer .
          
          Directed by Australian scientist Penny Webb , this research indicated that women who consume other beverages such as beer or spirits did not get the same benefits and risk of developing the disease is not clearly differed from nondrinkers .
          
          After five years of study on ovarian cancer, Webb and his team analyzed and compared data from 696 women suffering from ovarian cancer and 786 women without the disease , between 18 and 79 years .         

British researchers say in a new study published in the journal Nature that the highest levels of procyanidins, found in a compound in red wine , have potent protective effects on blood vessels.
          
          Still, researchers nuance that red wines from regions of southwest France and Sardinia , where it continues to handcrafted wine and people tend to be long-lived, have higher levels of this compound , perhaps derived from the traditional production mode . In fact, these wines have surprisingly high levels of procyanidins , between 5 and 10 times more than the wines produced elsewhere. But the point of the study is that the polyphenols containing these wines are actively involved in the care of the arteries as they become a powerful protector.
          
          These findings suggest that , although a glass or two a day may be beneficial for the circulatory system, not all red wines provide the same amount of polyphenols. So as Matt and Kaeberlein , professor of pathology at the University of Washington "the relationship between procyanidins and vasodilation interesting " but despite this , experts believe that the increase in human longevity associated with moderate alcohol consumption not wine is unique and therefore can not be the result solely of procyanidins and polyphenols , warned the expert.
          
          For his part , Dr. Johan Auwerx of the Institute of Genetics and Molecular and Cellular Biology in Illkirch , France says it is possible that "many compounds present in red wine have health benefits and their combined action may contribute to the relationship between wine consumption and longevity , "he said Auwerx who stresses that" despite these potential health effects, not be so quick to recommend wine as an elixir , "he added .         


                 


          Drinking wine linked to lower risk of lung cancer         


          Examination of several previous studies found a possible correlation between different types of alcohol and lung cancer , but not with wine .
          
          
          
          Drinking wine meta- analysis published in the November issue of Cancer Prevention and epidemiological markers is associated with a lower risk of developing lung cancer , according to a . Those who consume more than one serving of beer or alcoholic beverages in any amount , however , was determined to have a high risk .
          
          According to the American Cancer Society, lung cancer is the leading cause of deaths in the world related to cancer . While snuff consumption has been identified as the major risk factor , a significant number of cases of lung cancer are non - related to the use of snuff . "A possible link between alcohol consumption and risk of lung cancer has long been speculated ," wrote Chun Chao, associate professor in the department of research and evaluation at Kaiser Permanente , Southern California researcher, and author analysis .
          
          Chao compiled data from 10 studies in the United States and Canada as well as the Czech Republic, Spain and Uruguay , which track the consumption of alcohol and snuff in the excluded smokers participant base . In the group of participants who do not smoke 453751 , 4119 of lung cancer cases arose during the observation, that for some of the studies ranged up to 10 years .
          
          Chao organized the data by type of preferred beverage and the amount of alcohol consumed per day normally . He created two categories of the amount of alcohol consumed : to 13 grams of alcohol per day , or more than 13 g of alcohol per day . Chao found that about 13 grams ( 18ml ) of alcohol correlates with a drink : 150ml of wine, beer, 330ml or 40ml of liquor.
          
          When the Chao compared lung cancer against the frequency and type of beverages consumed, the results showed that wine drinkers had a lower risk of lung cancer compared with nondrinkers , regardless of their level of consumption. They also showed less than those who drank other types of alcohol risk. Drink less than one glass of wine per day correlated to a 23 percent lower risk of developing lung cancer, and drinking one or more glasses per day is equal to a 22 percent lower risk compared with nondrinkers .
          
          Those who drank less than one beer per day were the only other category that showed a lower risk of developing lung cancer, with 22 percent lower compared with nondrinkers opportunity . Drink a beer or more per day , however , was associated with a 25 percent higher risk of lung cancer, while drinking alcoholic beverages in any amount was associated with a 40 percent increased risk . The results were statistically significant only in men, but not women .
          
          Chao cautioned that their findings do not necessarily show a direct cause and effect relationship between alcohol consumption and lung cancer . However, it was speculated that drinking wine does not correlate with an increased risk of lung cancer for two main reasons . The first is that the wine contains certain carcinogens, such as nitrosamines , compounds linked to cancer is sometimes made ​​in beverages and products preserved with nitrite. Second, the antioxidant chemicals that are believed to have anticancer properties are found in greater abundance in the wine and can compensate for any added risk that comes with alcohol intake itself.
          
          Chao said , however, that the results may not translate to the general population because the study is not clinical . " He informed me of the associations can not be interpreted as causal at this time , [ and ] we need more evidence for causal inference ," Chao said. " More studies are needed to understand the effect of alcohol on the risk of lung cancer. "
          
          
          
          Wine Drinking Linked to Lower Risk of Lung Cancer         


          Examination of several previous studies found a possible correlation Between Alcohol and different types of lung cancer , but not with wine         


          Drinking wine is Associated with a lower risk of lung cancer develop developing , According to a meta- analysis published in the November issue of Cancer Epidemiological Markers & Prevention. Those who consumed more than one serving of beer or spirits in any amount , however it , were found to not have an elevated risk .
          ACCORDING to the American Cancer Society, lung cancer is the leading cause of the world 's cancer - related deaths . While smoking has-been Identified as the greatest risk factor , a significant number of lung- cancer cases are unrelated to tobacco use . " A possible link Between Alcohol consumption and risk of lung cancer has long Been speculated , " wrote Chun Chao, research associate at the department of research and evaluation at Kaiser Permanente , Southern California, and author of the analysis.
          Chao compiled data from 10 studies in the United States and Canada , as well as the Czech Republic , Spain and Uruguay , que tracked Alcohol consumption and tobacco smokers excluded from the participant base. In the pool of 453.751 nonsmoking participants , 4,119 lung cancer cases Arose During observation , que for some of the studies ranged up to 10 years .
          Chao Organized According To the data type of the preferred beverage was and how much spirit Typically Consumed per day . I have created two categories for the amount of Alcohol Consumed : up to 13 grams of Alcohol per day , or more than 13 grams of Alcohol per day . That Chao determined to around 13 grams ( 18ml ) of spirit correlates to one drink : 150ml of wine , 330ml of beer or 40ml of liquor .
          When instances of the Chao Compared lung cancer against the frequency and type of beverage Consumed , the results Showed that wine drinkers had a lower risk of lung cancer Compared to nondrinkers , Regardless of Their level of consumption. They Also Showed a lower risk than other types Those who drank of alcohol. Drinking less than one glass of wine per day Correlated to a 23 percent lower risk of develop developing lung cancer , and drinking one or more glasses per day was equal to a 22 percent lower risk When Compared to nondrinkers .
          Those who drank less than one beer per day Were the only other category That Showed a lower risk of lung cancer develop developing , With 22 percent lower chance Compared to nondrinkers . Drinking one beer per day or more , however it , was Associated with a 25 percent risk of lung cancer Greater , while drinking spirits in any amount was 40 percent Associated with a Greater risk . The only statistically significant results Were in men , however it , not women .
          That Chao cautioned his findings do not show a direct Necessarily cause -and -effect relationship Between Alcohol consumption and lung cancer. However , I have speculated That did not correlate drinking wine to an added risk of lung cancer for two main reasons. The first is that wine does not Contain Un certain carcinogens , Such as nitrosamines , cancer -linked compounds sometimes found in brewed beverages and products preserved with nitrites . Second , antioxidant chemicals , que are Believed To Have anti -cancer properties , are found in abundance in Greater May wine and offset any added risk ingesting That Comes with the spirit itself .
          Chao said , however I , That can not be translated the results to the overall population Because the study is not clinical. "The associations can not be interpreted I reported causal as at this moment , [and ] we need more evidence for causal inference , " the Chao said . " We need more studies Also to understand the effect of heavy drinking on lung cancer risk . "
          
          Occasional drinkers and that in turn get moderate exercise most likely to extend its life
          
          
          
          A long-term study of nearly 12,000 people in Denmark, found a reduced risk of diseases that threaten the lives of both drank alcohol and regular exercise .
          
          
          
          Active, responsible drinkers received some good news from a study published on January 9 of the European Heart Journal . The study concluded that moderate alcohol consumption and moderate exercise are both associated with a longer life , but more importantly , the benefit increases when the two behaviors are combined.
          
          " The lower risk of death from all causes was observed between physical activity , moderate drinkers , and the increased risk among physically inactive and did not come ," said Østergaard Pedersen, lead author of the study and a researcher at the National Institute of Public Health, University of Southern Denmark in Copenhagen. Moderate drinkers , who also have chances to live longer , study finds
          A long-term study of nearly 12,000 people in Denmark, found a reduced risk of diseases that threaten the lives of both drank alcohol and regular exercise
          Jacob Gaffney
          Published: Tuesday, January 15, 2008
          Active, responsible drinkers received some good news from a study published on January 9 of the European Heart Journal . The study concluded that moderate alcohol consumption and moderate exercise are both associated with a longer life , but more importantly , the benefit increases when the two behaviors are combined.
          
          " The lower risk of death from all causes was observed between physical activity , moderate drinkers , and the increased risk among physically inactive and did not come ," said Østergaard Pedersen, lead author of the study and a researcher at the National Institute of Public Health, University of Southern Denmark in Copenhagen. " Neither physical activity alone nor alcohol intake can completely reverse the increased risk associated with alcohol abstention and lack of physical activity. Therefore both moderate to high levels of physical activity and moderate consumption alcohol are important to reduce the risk of heart disease and fatal Deaths from all causes. "
          
          According to the research , which was co -produced by Morten Grønbæk , director of research at the Institute , previous studies have found moderate drinking which was associated with a lower risk of heart disease, while other studies have found the same for the year . However, this is the first study to examine a combination of the two , according to the study authors . This, they said , is especially useful for physicians as alcohol consumption and exercise habits are easy pieces of information obtained from patients , and both can be modified accordingly.
          
          Researchers pulled data on 11914 enrolled Danes in the Copenhagen City Heart larger study , in which participants ' health was monitored for 20 years, from the late 70s and early 80s . In that study, subjects patterns of alcohol consumption and exercise were recorded , as well as other lifestyle factors such as smoking and socioeconomic status . During the 20 years , 1242 cases of fatal heart disease and 5901 deaths from any cause were recorded.
          
          When death rates with alcohol and exercise patterns were compared , researchers found that the risk was lower among men and women who drank between one and 14 drinks per week , and also exerts pace for more than four hours week. These men were 30 percent less likely to die from any cause and the women were 49 percent less likely to die . Rates of heart disease are also lower among these people equally .
          
          The physically inactive are at highest risk of death, regardless of the habits, and within each level of physical activity moderate drinkers had the lowest risk of death from all causes. The researchers noted , however, that the study results are intended to highlight the importance of all those responsible for around healthy behavior , which warned against adopting only parts out of the investigation.
          
          "Our study shows that the two are physically active and drinking a moderate amount of alcohol is important to reduce the risk of both fatal heart disease and death from all causes, " says Grønbæk .
          
          " For men and women , physical activity was associated with a significantly lower risk for fatal heart disease and all -cause mortality to be physically inactive , and alcohol consumption was associated with a lower risk of heart disease that abstention fatal , "he added . " A moderate weekly alcohol intake reduces the risk of all-cause mortality among men and women , while the risk among heavy drinkers is similar to nondrinkers ."
          
          According to the research , which was co -produced by Morten Grønbæk , director of research at the Institute , previous studies have found moderate drinking which was associated with a lower risk of heart disease, while other studies have found the same for the year . However, this is the first study to examine a combination of the two , according to the study authors . This, they said , is especially useful for physicians as alcohol consumption and exercise habits are easy pieces of information obtained from patients , and both can be modified accordingly.
          
          Researchers pulled data on 11914 enrolled Danes in the Copenhagen City Heart larger study , in which participants ' health was monitored for 20 years, from the late 70s and early 80s . In that study, subjects patterns of alcohol consumption and exercise were recorded , as well as other lifestyle factors such as smoking and socioeconomic status . During the 20 years , 1242 cases of fatal heart disease and 5901 deaths from any cause were recorded.
          
          When death rates with alcohol and exercise patterns were compared , researchers found that the risk was lower among men and women who drank between one and 14 drinks per week , and also exerts pace for more than four hours week. These men were 30 percent less likely to die from any cause and the women were 49 percent less likely to die . Rates of heart disease are also lower among these people equally .
          
          The physically inactive are at highest risk of death, regardless of the habits, and within each level of physical activity moderate drinkers had the lowest risk of death from all causes. The researchers noted , however, that the study results are intended to highlight the importance of all those responsible for around healthy behavior , which warned against adopting only parts out of the investigation.
          
          "Our study shows that the two are physically active and drinking a moderate amount of alcohol is important to reduce the risk of both fatal heart disease and death from all causes, " says Grønbæk .
          
          " For men and women , physical activity was associated with a significantly lower risk for fatal heart disease and all -cause mortality to be physically inactive , and alcohol consumption was associated with a lower risk of heart disease that abstention fatal , "he added . " A moderate weekly alcohol intake reduces the risk of all-cause mortality among men and women , while the risk among heavy drinkers is similar to nondrinkers ."         


        Exercise Moderate Drinkers Who Also Likely to Live Longer , Study Finds         


          A long- term study of nearly 12,000 people in Denmark found a reduced risk of life - threatening ailments Both Among Those who drank alcohol, and Exercised Regularly
          Active , responsible drinkers got some good news from a study published Jan. 9 in the European Heart Journal. The study Concluded That moderate consumption of alcohol, and moderate exercise are Both Associated with longer life but , more important , the benefit Increases When the two behaviors are combined .
          " The Lowest risk of death from all causes was Observed Among the Physically active, moderate drinkers , and the highest risk Among the Physically inactive non -and heavy drinkers , " said Østergaard Pedersen, the study 's lead author and a researcher at the National Institute of Public Health at the University of Southern Denmark in Copenhagen . "Neither physical activity nor Alcohol intake alone can completely reverse the risk Associated with Increased Alcohol abstention and lack of physical activity . THUS , Both moderate to high levels of physical activity and a moderate alcoholic intake are important for lowering the risk of fatal heart disease and deaths from all causes . "
          ACCORDING to the research , que was co -authored by Morten , director of research at the Institute, previous studies not have found moderate drinking to be Associated with a lower risk of heart disease , while other studies not have found the same for exercise . However , this is the first study to examine a combination of the two , According to the study 's authors. This, They Said , is helpful for physicians Especially since Alcohol consumption and exercise habits are pieces of information Easily Obtained from Both patients -and can be modified accordingly .
          The Researchers pulled data on 11,914 Danes Enrolled in the larger Copenhagen City Heart study , in Which the participants ' health was acerca Monitored over 20 years , beginning in the late '70s and early '80s . In That study , the subjects ' consumption patterns of alcoholic Were Recorded and exercise , as well as other lifestyle factors , smoking habits : such as socioeconomic status and . Over the 20 years , 1,242 cases of fatal heart disease and 5,901 deaths from any cause Were recorded.
          When They Compared to the rates of death Alcohol and exercise patterns, Researchers found the risk was That Book early Among Men and women who drank one to 14 Between drinks per week and Exercised Also briskly for more than four hours per week . Such men Were 30 percent less likely to die by any cause and 49 percent Were women less likely to die . Rates of heart disease Were Also Among These people similarly lower .
          The Physically inactive had the highest risk of death , Regardless of drinking habits , and Within each level of physical activity had the moderate drinkers Book early risk of death from all causes . The Researchers pointed out , however I , That the study results are meant to highlight the ideas importance of all-around responsible , healthy behavior ; They only cautioned against taking pieces away from the research.
          "Our study shows That being Both Physically active and drinking a moderate amount of alcohol, is important for lowering the risk of Both fatal heart disease and death from all causes , " said Grønbæk .
          " For Both men and women , being Physically active was Associated with a Significantly lower risk for Both fatal heart disease and all- cause mortality than being Physically inactive , and drinking alcohol, was Associated with a lower risk of fatal heart disease than abstaining , " I have added . " A weekly moderate alcoholic intake reduced the risk of all- cause mortality Among Both men and women , Whereas heavy drinkers Among the risk was similar to nondrinkers . "
          
          Compound Found in Red Wine Could Reduce Hypertension in Postmenopausal Women , Study Finds         


          Research performed on rats from Spain shows That polyphenols found naturally in red wine keep blood vessels healthy May in older , hypertensive women
          Compounds found in red wine Could Potentially help ease hypertension in postmenopausal women , According to a study published That will be in the April 2008 issue of the medical journal Hypertension. Women Who Have gone through menopause are at Greater risk of hypertension than men of the same age , underlining the need to identify identity potential therapeutic Measures, the study 's authors wrote .
          "The present findings help to explain May the potential benefit of red- wine polyphenols as a therapeutic agent for vascular preventative menopausal complications , " the authors wrote , "especially in hypertensive women . " The red -wine compounds, it was found, reduces hypertension May help as well as the complications Associated with it , : such as inflammation of the arteries , aorta restricted to oxidative stress or on the blood vessels .
          The study was led by Rocío López- Sepúlveda, a researcher at the department of pharmacology at the University of Granada , who study in the text Noted That previous research has found That Red -wine polyphenols can offer protection against cardiovascular disease . One such polyphenol , resveratrol, has shown potential for treating and possibly preventative myriad disorders , Such as cardiovascular diseases , pulmonary disorders and some forms of cancer. Other red- wine polyphenols May hold promise for fighting prostate cancer. But the compounds' effects on women's blood vessels was important to research , the study Noted , Because a woman 's risk of hypertension before menopause is below That of a similarly aged man , but it can rise Significantly after menopause .
          The study , que Also included research from the University Complutense of Madrid , used female rats That Were genetically engineered to have high blood pressure . The Researchers then stimulated menopause by removing the rats ' ovaries , after Which time the rats ' blood pressure rose ( due to Their altered DNA). The scientists Treated half the rats with a mixture of several types of red- wine chemicals Associated with improved circulation , including resveratrol, for a period of five weeks . The remaining rats served as a group control and received only water along With Their diet .
          After five weeks , the scientists Examined the rats ' blood vessels . They found the high blood pressure That Had been alleviated in the rats received a regular lattice That -wine -compound treatment added to their food . The rats had more relaxed aortas , healthier linings to the veins and arteries , as well as less oxidative stress -all of Which are Associated with lower blood pressure .
          Researchers Noted That The previous studies on red -wine compounds and Their effects on estrogen - related disease did not Involve Risks mammals , reducing the applicability of the results to humans . This study , however it , to show Hoped That treating estrogen -deficient mammals with red -wine compounds Could produce like results . The use of genetically engineered rats With Their ovaries removed, the study text states, is an established method of research women who emulates That Have Gone through menopause .
          The scientists cautioned , however it That Their results while following have That the risk of hypertension in postmenopausal women Could Potentially be reduced through the use of a regular red- wine- chemical supplements, the results May not extend to women who drink red wine . Not only red wine itself was not used in the study , the authors Noted That the exact Mechanisms involved in. red- wine polyphenols Alleviating high blood pressure REMAIN unclear , and require further study .         


          Researchers Look to Red- Wine Compounds for Alzheimer 's Cure         

Polyphenols , including resveratrol, proteins can build up in Control That and inflict damage brain cells , more research needed
          Two teams from opposite sides of Researchers of the country They say May have figured out how compounds found in red wine combat the onset of Alzheimer 's disease . They are now focusing Their Efforts to develop developing into possible treatment or cure .
          Scientists at UCLA , in collaboration with a team at Mt Sinai School of Medicine in New York , recently Announced That Their findings grape seed -derived polyphenols block and neutralize the toxic plaques That build up in the brains of Alzheimer's patients and kill brain cells. Known as Two proteins -beta amyloid peptides are Associated with Alzheimer 's. These long protein strands to clump together outstretch , forming plaques that kill surrounding brain cells. The UCLA and Mt Sinai Researchers found That the grape polyphenols blocked the formation of the plaques . They Also found That the polyphenols Decreased the toxicity of the compounds Were When the plaques bonded with amyloid -beta peptides before being added to brain cells.
          "If the amyloid -beta proteins can not assemble , toxic aggregates can not form , and there is no toxicity Malthus , " said co - author David Teplow , a UCLA neurology professor, in a statement . "Our work in the laboratory , and Mt Sinai 's Dr. Giulio Pasinetti 's work in mice , suggest That administration of the compound to Alzheimer 's patients Might block the development of These toxic aggregates , prevent disease development and Existing Also ameliorate disease . " Earlier research by Pasinetti Cabernet Sauvignon Also found That you reduce the levels of amyloid -beta peptides in mice 's brains .
          The results Were published in the Nov. 21 issue of the Journal of Biochemistry. Also Said That Teplow questions REMAIN acerca Whether the best potential treatment will be naturally synthesized polyphenols or a lab version . "The answer depends on the therapeutic dose in clinical trials and determined to Whether introduction of the dietary polyphenols These levels will occur in the brain , " I said . "It May be possible , for example , to create a pill That concentrates the Appropriate polyphenols and thereby produces therapeutic doses in the brain . "
          The UCLA team is not the only one making progress in the fight against Alzheimer 's. In mid - November, speaking at the Society for Neuroscience 's annual meeting in Washington, DC, researcher Valorie Vingtdeux , of the Manhasset, NY, based Feinstein Institute for Medical Research, Offered an alternative theory for how red- wine compounds May help in the fight against Alzheimer 's. Vingtdeux and her team not have found That the red wine compound resveratrol appears to activate a specific enzyme That amyloid -beta peptide controls levels.
          The enzyme is called AMPK . When levels of adenosine triphosphate (ATP ) , the molecule used by cells as an energy source , drop , AMPK is activated. The enzyme prepare the body's cells for the metabolic change . Also Observed That Vingtdeux it lowers amyloid -beta levels. In her research , overseen by Noted Alzheimer 's researcher Philippe Marambaud , That she found resveratrol activates AMPK Also , que then lowers the amount of the dangerous amyloid -beta peptides in the brain .
          Feinstein Institute scientists are now screening a litany of chemicals to see Whether there are any compounds that Could mimic the effects of resveratrol. The Amounts found in grapes and wine are too small to have a benefit , so Vingtdeux 's team is looking to Develop a synthetic version . Furthermore , the scientists are still unclear on how resveratrol activates AMPK .
          Both the teams UCLA and Mt Sinai and the Feinstein Institute are exploring clinical trials with humans . Much Remains to be more research done. " Resveratrol in grapes May never reach the required Concentrations , " said Marambaud . " However , grapes and wine Contain more than 600 different Such components . We can not exclude the Possibility That several compounds work in synergy with small Amounts of resveratrol to slow down the progression of the neurodegenerative process in humans . "         


          Health Research Looks to Grapes         


          Scientists hope to unlock the potential of compounds found in grapes and wine
          It's a chicken and egg dilemma Real : Which holds Greater health benefits -a bunch of grapes or a glass of wine ? As scientists continue to explore the potential of chemical compounds found in grapes and wine , it Remains a nagging question . While the moderate consumption of wine , Especially network , has-been linked to several health benefits in the past two decades, recent studies are now looking at grapes and , more específicamente , the polyphenolic compounds They Contain , in an attempt to understand These compounds' potential .
          Not that wine is being ignored . A recent roundtable discussion by prominent Researchers, slated to be published in the February 2009 issue of Alcoholism: Clinical & Experimental Research, Agreed That Provides light to moderate alcoholic consumption myriad health benefits . And University of South Florida Researchers published findings last month That suggest That the compound resveratrol , When combined with alcohol as in red wine , can help break down fat in livers before it accumulates and leads to disease .
          But several new studies support the Possibility That many of wine 's health benefits from eating the grapes Directly . The juice , pulp and skins of grapes Contain an abundance of polyphenols ( container containing chains of organic compounds Carbon , hydrogen and oxygen in a special structure ) Such as resveratrol , tannins and flavonoids.
          A review article published in the November issue of Nutrition Research Examined the results of 26 studies on grape polyphenols . In some of the included studies , patients Treated with grape -seed extracts Showed improvements in blood flow and cholesterol levels. In another study , drinking grape juice improved circulation in patients with coronary artery disease and lowered blood pressure in patients with hypertension . Separate studies on rats and dogs Showed lower levels of blood clots and heart arrhythmia When the animals' diets Were Supplemented with resveratrol or anthocyanins , a type of flavonoid.
          Another recent study , Conducted at the University of Michigan Cardiovascular Center and published in the October issue of the Journal of Gerontology : Biological Sciences, took the research a step further by examining the effects of grape powder on the circulation of rats Already Living with hypertension . The Researchers high levels of salt Administered to a group of rats , inducing high blood pressure . They then fed the grape powder to rats and found several benefits , lower blood pressure and Notably reduced vascular inflammation .
          "These findings support our theory That something Themselves Within the grapes have a direct impact on cardiovascular risk , beyond the mere blood pressure -lowering impact already know That we can eat from a diet rich in fruits and vegetables , " said lead researcher in Mitchell Seymour a statement .
          University of Michigan heart surgeon Dr. Steven Bolling added That the rodents in the study mimic millions of Americans who have high blood pressure related to diet and May Develop heart failure over time as a result . "Although there are many Natural compounds in the grape powder not have an effect That May , the Things That we think are having an effect against the hypertension May be the flavonoids, Either by direct antioxidant effects, by indirect effects on cell function , or both, " I said .
          Grapes ' potential health benefits are not limited to the circulatory system . Two studies published recently in the Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry Also found benefits in consuming grape and grape extracts . The first , from the department of viticulture and enology at the University of California at Davis, found That Extracted anthocyanins from Cabernet Sauvignon grapes aided digestion in pigs and possibly even Could Prevent colon cancer in humans .
          "Results From this study suggest That consumption of Cabernet Sauvignon grape anthocyanins Could lead to the formation of specific metabolites in the human gut , " authors wrote Sarah Forester and Andrew Waterhouse. "It is possible That These metabolites offer the protective effect against colon cancer Attributed to anthocyanin consumption , "
          The other study , from the U.S. Department of Agriculture, found That reproductions of several chemical resveratrol reversed the effects of aging in 19 -month-old rats , Primarily by Improving the rodents ' cognition . That study is a clear indication of Perhaps the desire of Researchers to use knowledge of grape polyphenols ' potential as a springboard for develop developing clinical applications for humans .
          The more scientists learn about the compounds in grapes , the more They May be able to custom -design new treatments . A study in the Nov. 5 issue of Cell Metabolism, for example , found That mice on a high- fat diet did not obese When TREATED WITH Become SRT1720 , an experimental drug designed by Sirtris Pharmaceuticals and to mimic the effects of resveratrol Enhance . The rodents ' triglyceride , cholesterol and insulin levels and reduced Comparatively Were All They Could acerca for twice the run time of a group control.
          As research Continues, May it not matter if scientists focus on wine or grapes . The compounds Within May Both hold great potential for medicine 's future . Still , that Does not mean munching on grapes or enjoying a glass of red wine daily is not healthy and enjoyable .         


          Drinking Wine Linked to Better Levels of Omega -3 Fatty Acids         

Novel mechanism triggered by wine consumption Creates healthy fats
          The latest research on wine and health May seem a little fishy . Scientists working in collaboration across three separate parts of Europe found responsible That Alcohol consumption , drinking wine Especially , is linked to higher levels of omega -3 fatty acids in the blood .
          Previous studies not have found high levels of That Both omega -3, found abundantly in oily fish , and moderate alcoholic consumption , Especially wine , are linked to healthier hearts . Omega -3 Began to get serious attention in the scientific community after the United States Food and Drug Administration in 2004 Declared That the fatty acids help lower the risk of heart disease . The agency cites oily fish , : such as salmon , lake trout , tuna and herring as being high in the substances .
          ACCORDING to a study lead by Romina di Giuseppe , a biomedical epidemiologist at Catholic University in Campobasso, Italy, scheduled to be published in the January issue of the American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, while the body can not manufacture These fatty acids alone , That research found it can synthesize omega -3 oils from vegetable everyday , with the help of alcohol.
          The European Citizens Researchers Examined 1,604 from the southwest region of London , Limburg in Belgium and Abruzzo in Italy , with the help of Their physicians . All participants underwent a comprehensive medical examination and filled out a questionnaire , que included questions on dietary habits and alcohol- consumption. The process was Repeated a year later . Blood samples Were Also taken to measure the levels of omega- 3 in blood plasma and red blood cells .
          One serving of alcoholic was defined as one 4 -ounce glass of wine at 12 percent alcohol, by volume . One shot of spirits was equal to 1.35 ounces . The definition of beer varied According To Local custom: 200 milliliter ( 6.7 ounces ) can or bottle of beer is common in Italy , Compared to 250 milliliters and 284 milliliters in Belgium (one half- pint ) in England . The amount of "marine food intake , " defined as the overall intake of fish , shellfish cuttlefish , squid , octopus, shrimp and crab , and was taken into Measured Also account .
          The scientists found moderate Consumers of Alcohol That had higher levels of omega -3 In Their bodies , When Compared to nondrinkers , DESPITE consuming Similar Amounts of marine food. Heavy drinkers , on the other hand , had lower amounts. When They separated the findings ACCORDING to type of beverage , wine drinkers stood out as having the healthiest levels of omega -3. Healthiest levels were found in women who Consumed up to one glass of wine per day and men who Consumed maybe two or three glasses , Giuseppe said of the results .
          After several more tests the Researchers found That , "the metabolism of alcohol, you induce production of reactive oxygen species [ free radicals ] after moderate drinking , que May Increase polyunsaturated fatty acid breakdown and utilization , " said Giuseppe text in the study . By producing Potentially damaging free radicals , the spirit pushes the body into action, she added , and starts to convert more commonly- found alpha- linolenic fatty acids into the healthier omega -3 acids can destroy free radicals That . Alpha - linolenic acids abound in seed -and nut- based oils , canola and rapeseed : such as , and are Also found in vegetables and the animals eat them That green. The milk of grass-fed cows , for example , contains alpha- linolenic acid .
          The study , que was overseen by Noted French cardiovascular researcher Dr. Michel de Lorgeril of Grenoble University in Lyon, That states , "if confirmed , This effect of drinking Alcohol Might Have major implication in the prevention of coronary heart disease . " But the study warns Also That a long -term trial is Necessary in order to outline what form any therapy Might take.
          In The Meantime , the scientists say They do not want to force a change in dietary habits of people who prefer beer or spirits . " With our research we suggest That simply components of wine other than alcohol, Might be [ better ] Associated with marine omega -3 fatty acid Concentrations , " said Giuseppe .         


          Wine , Tea and Chocolate Improve Mental Performance         


          Scientists Find That a diet rich in all three works best for elderly study participants
          A team of Researchers at Oxford University, working with colleagues at the University of Oslo, Say That a combination of wine , dark chocolate and tea , in moderate Amounts , Enhances cognitive performance in the elderly .
          According To study co - author David Smith, a founding director of the Oxford Project to Investigate Memory and Aging , the study 's findings , published in the January issue of the Journal of Nutrition, suggest people Should Regularly consume low levels of wine , dark chocolate and tea . All three are rich in polyphenolic compounds called flavonoids found in grapes , tea leaves and cocoa beans .
          Smith warns , however I , That it's best not to get carried away too much - too much chocolate and wine are Both Known to be bad for the health. "The key thing is: How much wine ? " Smith said . " We found the effect was maximal That with as little as a small glass of wine . "
          Previous research on wine , tea and chocolate found relativamente That each product contains high levels of flavonoids, and all three are Also Associated with a lower risk of dementia and cognitive Greater performance . The scientists wanted to see if a yearlong That diet included low levels of all three Could lead to better brain activity .
          To test Their theory , the Researchers pulled data on 2,031 Norwegian men and women , ages 70 to 74, who had taken part in a previous Norwegian study . In That research , participants filled in information acerca Their usual food intake and underwent a battery of cognitive tests.
          The Oxford and Oslo team found participants who That Consumed combinations of Between 1 to 3.5 ounces of wine , 10 grams of chocolate and up to 200 milliliters of tea , preferably green, per day had a 41 percent to 53 percent lower risk of performing poorly on cognitive tests than other participants . The different foods had different effects . Those who drank only wine Regularly did better than Those Who Consumed only chocolate. Those who performed best Consumed all three .
          The results did not outstretch to Improve For Those participants who Consumed Greater quantities of wine , tea or chocolate. And the authors warn That the test is not observational and clinical -they did not recruit participants who naturally consume much more of Either ingredient . Only four of the volunteers drank more than three glasses of wine per day , for example , so the effects of heavy drinking Could not be Examined . The study notes That Such levels of drinking are Associated with lower cognitive performance .
          Smith added the results That Could be partially Explained by factors other than dietary choices . The study participants who are notes That Consumers May moderate wine have " a healthier diet or a complex set of social pro and lifestyle factors. " Smith Said That Could future research address some of the Limitations of the study .         


          Grape Seed Extracts Show Promise Against Leukemia , Obesity         


          Two studies find red- wine compounds perform powerful tasks ; discussion rages over Whether or wine supplements offer best results
          The chemicals swirling around in That glass of red wine May pack more of a punch than the spirit Provides alone . Two recent American studies find extracts from grape seeds That can kill leukemia cells and Both fat cells in a controlled laboratory environment . But scientists are unsure Whether wine , grape seed extracts or supplements offer the best medicine .
          The leukemia study , published in the January issue of Clinical Cancer Research, focused on anthocyanidins , a class of compounds lend That Their colored grapes and vines are part of nature ' defenses . Previous research has found That anthocyanidins selectively eradicate leukemia cells. But the latest research from the University of Kentucky uncovered a mechanism That May explain why anthocyanidin -rich grape seed extract Could be an Effective cancer cell killer . ACCORDING to the study , the extract activates proteins inside of cancer cells are responsible for regulating That the cells' life cycle .
          The Researchers leukemia cells in cultures exposed to various doses of a Commercially available grape seed extract . After being exposed to the Most Effective dosage for 24 hours, 76 percent of the leukemia cells self - destructed in a form of programmed cell death apoptosis Known as. The cause of apoptosis was the activation of a protein , called JNK .
          "These results Could have Implications for the incorporation of agents : such as grape seed extract into prevention or treatment of hematological malignancies and possibly other Cancers , " said the study 's lead author , Xianglin Shi, a professor at the Graduate Center for Toxicology at Kentucky, in a statement . However , Shi warns That it is unclear if ingesting grapes or wine Could Provide to the same result , and added apple skins That Also Contain Relatively high levels of anthocyanidins . "This research is very promising , " I said . " But it is too early to say this is chemo -protective . "
          The study on human fat cell lines , published in the December issue of the Journal of Medicinal Food , used a combination of three plant -based chemicals as a potential weapon against obesity : genistein , que abounds in soybeans , and quercetin and resveratrol , Both of Which are found in red wine . All three belong to a class of chemicals called flavonoids and are Believed to act as powerful antioxidants .
          The study was Conducted by the departments of Foods and Nutrition and Animal & Dairy Science at the University of Georgia, under the sponsorship of Aptotec , a commercial center obesity research . Scientists found That a combination of genistein , quercetin and resveratrol induced cell death in human fat lines at low Concentrations .
          The effect was Greater than resveratrol alone Employing experiments , even extremely high doses of When Were resveratrol used. This is significant , the study authors write, Considering previous studies into resveratrol 's effects on overweight mice used levels of the compound are unobtainable That though the Regular consumption of resveratrol -rich food and drink .
          Critics have Argued That These resveratrol -focused studies May be skewed to benefit Un certain resveratrol supplement manufacturers involved in. Who were the research. ( However , one of the co - authors of the study Georgia , University of Georgia researcher Clifton Baile , is CEO of Aptotec Also , que would presumably profit from any obesity treatment . )
          " I think Most nutritionists recommend eating a wide variety of fruits and vegetables in order To Have adequate Amounts of vitamins and minerals , " said University of Georgia research scientist MaryAnne Della- Fera , who is the chief scientific officer Also of Aptotec . " However , it May be Equally important in providing a wider exposure to other compounds and flavonoids and help keep us healthy That . "
          Della- Fera That added while resveratrol, for example , Appears To Have important effects by itself at high doses, Their research goal to identify identity combinations Remains That would induce the same effect but requires much lower Amounts of each compound individually . "In That Way , That the low levels get absorbed into the blood are much more likely to produce a beneficial effect and less likely to cause Also adverse effects , " she said .
          However , Della- Fera Argued That some perspective is needed When Considering the larger picture behind studies : such as these. "If someone enjoys having an occasional glass of wine , there's no actual need to call it a ' medical food, ' just an enjoyable food, " she said . "Moderate consumption of wine , wine red Particularly , is thought beneficial health effects To Have , possibly due to the Presence of grape polyphenols resveratrol Such as, but no one really knows what the basis of this effect is health . "         

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          Wine and heart health         

- Overview
          Information:
          There is a fine line between healthy drinking and risky drinking. They are doing more studies on the possible benefits that may have wine ( particularly red wine ) on the disease , however , is still a controversial topic .
          There is some evidence that people who drink moderately may be less likely to develop heart disease than abstainers . However, alcohol consumption has been linked to:
          • Cancer
          • Heart failure
          • Hypertension
          • irregular heartbeat ( arrhythmias)
          • Liver disease
          • Car accidents
          • Obesity
          • Physical abuse
          • Stroke
          • Suicide
          • Inflammation of the pancreas (pancreatitis )
          Excessive alcohol consumption is associated with cancers :
          • Mama
          • Colon
          • Boca
          • Straight
          • Throat (pharynx )
          • Larynx
          In addition , although some studies suggest that alcohol can raise good cholesterol ( HDL) , also increases a type of blood fat (triglycerides ) .
The American Heart Association (American Heart Association) and other experts say there are much more effective ways to prevent heart disease , including :
          • Control of blood pressure and cholesterol
          • Eat a healthy low fat diet and exercise
          • No smoking
          • Maintain a healthy weight
          These tried and true methods have much more scientific evidence that the method of drinking moderate amounts of alcohol. Moreover, the benefits suggested by some studies on alcohol consumption are likely due to other factors such as :
          • A diet rich in fruits and vegetables
          • Antioxidants found in red wine called flavonoids (also found in other foods such as grapes and red grape juice )
          • More physical activity in countries that drink wine regularly
          There is also a substance alcohol known as resveratrol , which can reduce the formation of blood clots. However, if there is a risk for heart disease or stroke , taking acetylsalicylic acid ( aspirin ) following the instructions of the physician is the most common way to reduce the chances of developing a blood clot method. Note: You should not drink alcohol if acetylsalicylic acid ( aspirin ) is taken regularly .
          Women should not drink more than one drink per day and men no more than two . A drink is defined as :
          • 12 oz ( 355 ml ) of beer
          • 4 ounces ( 118 ml ) of wine
          • 1.5 oz ( 44 ml ) of liquor or 80 degrees
          Even light drinking can lead to addiction . Pregnant women should avoid drinking alcohol altogether , as it can cause serious birth defects.
          references
          Lichtenstein AH , Appel LJ , Brands M , et al. Diet and lifestyle recommendations Revision 2006 : a scientific statement from the American Heart Association Nutrition Committee. Circulation. 2006 , 114:82-96 .
          Mukamal KJ, Chiuve SE, Rimm EB . Alcohol consumption and risk for coronary heart disease in men with healthy lifestyles . Arch Intern Med 2006 , 166:2145-2150 .
          Mosca L , Banka CL , Benjamin EJ , et al. Evidence-based guidelines for cardiovascular disease prevention in women: 2007 update. Circulation. 2007; 115:1481-1501         


          Wine and heart health         

          

- Overview
            Information:
            There is a fine line Between healthy drinking and risky drinking . More studies are being done on the possible benefits wine ( red wine Particularly ) May have on heart disease . However , it is a controversial topic .
            There is some evidence That people who drink moderately May be less likely than heart disease to Develop Those who do not drink at all . However , drinking alcoholic has-been linked to:
            • Cancer
            • Heart failure
            • High blood pressure
            • Irregular heart rhythms ( arrhythmias )
            • Liver disease
            • Motor vehicle accidents
            • Obesity
            • Physical abuse
            • Stroke
            • Suicide
            • Swelling of the pancreas (pancreatitis )
            Alcohol abuse is Associated with Cancers of the :
            • Breast
            • Colon
            • Mouth
            • Rectum
            • Throat ( pharynx )
            • Voice box ( larynx )
            In Addition, although some studies suggest That Alcohol May raise the good kind of cholesterol (HDL ) , Also it raises a type of fat in the blood ( triglycerides ) .
            The American Heart Association and other experts say there are much more Effective ways to Prevent heart disease , including:
            • Controlling your blood pressure and cholesterol
            • Exercising and Following a low -fat , healthy diet
            • Not smoking
            • Maintaining normal weight
            These tried and true methods have much more scientific proof supporting them than does moderate drinking Amounts of alcohol. Furthermore , the benefits Suggested by some of the studies on alcohol are likely due to other factors : such as :
            • A diet high in fruits and vegetables
            • Antioxidants found in red wine called flavonoids ( Which are Also found in other foods Such as grapes and grape juice red )
            • More physical activity in country clubs That drink wine Regularly
            There is a substance in Alcohol Also Known as resveratrol , que May reduce blood clot formation . However , taking aspirin Following your physician 's instructions is a more standard method for lowering your chances of develop developing a blood clot if you are at risk for heart disease or stroke . Note : You should NOT drink alcohol, if you take aspirin regularly.
            Women Should Have no more than one drink per day . Men Should Have no more than 2 drinks per day . A drink is defined as:
            • 12 ounces of beer
            • 4 ounces of wine
            • 1.5 ounces of 80-proof liquor or spirits
            Even light drinking can lead to addiction . Pregnant women need to avoid altogether Alcohol consumption can cause porque serious birth defects .
            
            References
            Lichtenstein AH , Appel LJ , Brands M , et al. Diet and lifestyle recommendations Revision 2006 : a scientific statement from the American Heart Association Nutrition Committee. Circulation. 2006 , 114:82-96 .
            Mukamal KJ, Chiuve SE, Rimm EB . Alcohol consumption and risk for coronary heart disease in men with healthy lifestyles . Arch Intern Med 2006 , 166:2145-2150 .
            Mosca L , Banka CL , Benjamin EJ , et al. Evidence-based guidelines for cardiovascular disease prevention in women: 2007 update. Circulation. 2007 , 115:1481-1501 .
            
            
            WINE, POLYPHENOLS AND HEALTH PROTECTION
            
            SUMMARY
            The regular and moderate consumption of wine , especially red wine , can produce
            additional beneficial effects on cardiovascular morbidity and mortality compared
            two to those causing the same amount of alcohol but other beverages . Red wine
            is rich in polyphenols , particularly quercitinas and resveratrol, which are good
            candidates to explain the putative protective effect of wine . Epidemiological studies
            linking polyphenol intake and risk of coronary heart disease and cancer in
            humans are inclined so convenient practice. Are presented in this paper
            Recent results of studies in vitro and in vivo in experimental animal models
            and although humans tend to confirm the favorable health effects arising from
            moderate wine consumption as part of a varied diet , show that
            require further investigation to reach definitive conclusions.
            Subject headings: WINE , ALCOHOL DRINKING , ANTIOXIDANTS / use
            therapeutic ; CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASE / diet therapy ; ILLNESS -
            DES CARDIOVASCULAR / prevention & control; MICROBIOLOGY ALI-
            MENTOS .
            
            
            Arteriosclerosis and heart disease
            Coronary have been linked to excess
            consumption of dietary fat , particularly
            mind of saturated fat and cholesterol ; without
            But in France and Italy ( 2 older
            wine producers in Europe) is consumed
            lot of fatty foods and is supplied
            less frequently fatal heart attacks than
            regions in North America or Europe
            North where not regularly drink
            wine, to what has been called " The
            French Paradox " by the apparent com -
            compatibility of a diet high in fat and fac -
            Risk factors for diseases
            cardiovascular (like smoking
            and high blood cholesterol levels )
            and low incidence of ischemic heart disease,
            and have been attributed to regular consumption
            red wine in those countries.
            
            The apparent paradox was revealed to
            American public for the first time in
            the television program " Sixty Minutes "
            (CBS TV , November 17, 1991 )
            and led to a rapid growth in wine sales 39% in the United States
            the following year.
            
            Wine is the beverage resulting from the
            alcoholic fermentation of grape juice
            and by extension obtained from other
            fruit or vegetable material . His elaboration
            tion consists of 3 main phases: obtaining -
            tion of the must, fermentation and last
            mo conservation and aging. the
            grape must give red wine undergoes fermentation
            mentation prior before being processed ,
            what differentiates the manufacturing process
            white wine which is processed directly
            rectly . Modifying fermentation
            You can vary the composition of wine ,
            obtaining besides other red and
            white ( dry wine ) and sweet wines
            or sparkling wine ( champagne) .
            
            Found a relationship for-
            ma "U" between alcohol consumption and
            ischemic heart disease. While the equi -
            valent than 2 drinks per day of any type
            of alcohol is associated with de-
            growth incidence, more than 2 working
            gos increases risk.           


            
                            


          POLYPHENOLS RED WINE         

          Polyphenols are a heterogeneous set
          rogéneo molecules that share the ca -
          characteristic of possessing in their structure will -
          rios benzene substituted by functional groups
          tions hydroxyl , with flavonoids
          best defined between polyphenols human diet group .
          Polyphenols are important to
          physiology of plants as contributions
          yen to the resistance of microorganisms and
          insects and help preserve its integrity
          for their continuous exposure to environmental stressors , including radiation
          ultraviolet and relatively high temperatures.
          
          Significant amounts of substances
          active phenolic present in the die-
          Human rt. Knowledge of
          bioavailability and blood levels and
          hísticos polyphenols is important in
          extrapolation from studies in cell - lines
          res animal models and humans. Today
          recognized that a fraction of polyphenols
          is captured by the mucosal cells
          proximal of the food system , and they or
          metabolites are detected in plasma
          ma at micromolar concentrations several
          hours after administration via
          oral and may be directly involved
          you in antioxidant defenses in vivo.
          A large proportion of polyphenols
          probably are not absorbed level
          the intestinal lumen but well they or their pro -
          products of bacterial degradation with -
          focus at the level of the ileum or large intestine
          so where can exert interactions be-
          neficiosas with the cells of the mucosa of
          distal intestine , because although polyphenols
          have no known function in the nutrition
          tion (ie are not nutrients ), many of
          They have antioxidant properties ,
          antimutagenic , anticarcinogenic and
          anti-inflammatory , beneficial in preventing
          tion of diseases and protection
          genome , particularly for cé -
          intestinal epithelial cells , one of the te-
          most proliferative tissues of the human body .
          The concentration of compounds
          wine polyphenolic varies between 1.80 and
          1.06 g / L , with an average of 2.57 g for
          red and between 0.16 and 0.30 g / L for white wine .
          
          As the total phenol content
          food and beverage correlates very
          strongly with their antioxidant activity,
          
          for their polyphenol composition and thermal
          minos antioxidant power , a glass of
          Red wine ( 150 ml ) of wine is 12
          white, or 2 cups of tea, 4 blocks , 5
          lots of onion, 3 glasses of beers ½ -
          za , 7 orange juice or 20 apples.
          
          However, the concentration and variety
          tion of phenolic compounds in wine
          depends on many factors: climate and
          ground, an early or late harvest,
          different processing procedures
          and grape must fermentation time .
          
          Phenolic compounds in wine -
          include, among others, the phenolic acids
          ( coumarin , cinnamic , caffeic , gentisic ,
          ferulic and vanillic ) and flavonoids ( catechins,
          quercetin and resveratrol) , which are synthesized
          tized by a common metabolic pathway to
          from phenylalanine .
          
          All come
          of purple grapes , particularly its
          skin , which produce a form of
          protection against relatively high
          temperatures to which they are exposed .
          
          The result of fractionation
          different phenolic components of wine
          Cabernet Sauvignon red type and post -
          rior performance liquid chromatography
          high pressure ( HPLC ) found three fractions:
          the neutral polyphenols ( catechins,
          epicatechin , procyanidins , rutin and
          quercetin ) , the acid polyphenols ( acid
          gallic , caffeic and coumaric ) , and the frac -
          tion residual aqueous anthocyanins .
          
          The fraction of soluble polyphenols
          accounted for another 71% of its compounds
          phenolic cough and was the most important
          terms of antioxidant capacity, since
          accounted for 65 % of it, however,
          neutral fraction of polyphenols was
          higher antioxidant activity per unit
          concentration of polyphenols , because despite
          constitute only 7.9% of phenols
          wine, accounting for 11 % of it.         


          
          ARTERIOSCLEROSIS , CANCER AND WINE POLYPHENOLS         


          Many components of the wine
          have shown strong antioxidant activity
          in vitro .
          
          The oxidation of LDL mediated
          macrophages is a marker of
          early atherosclerosis and depends
          oxidative state of the LDL and the
          macrophages .
          
          Part of the biological activity of the
          polyphenols is due to its ability to form
          Sea part of the cellular antioxidant system.
          The inverse relationship between consumption of
          dietary polyphenols and diseases
          cardiovascular may be due to the ca -
          ability of these compounds attenuate
          LDL oxidation , the formation of
          foam cells and thus the
          arteriosclerosis .
          
          Polyphenols may reduce
          lipid peroxidation of LDL ba -
          rriendo free radicals, or causing
          Chelation of transition metals, in effect
          recognized proxidantes cough (Cu + , Fe + +) ,
          economize or vitamin E and
          caretenoides that are associated antioxidants
          ciated with these lipoproteins .
          
          Some studies have addressed the possible
          bility that red wine polyphenols
          they can be incorporated into LDL and will
          confers protection against oxidative damage
          in the immediate post-prandial phase .
          
          Essays in the consumption of products vivosobre abundant
          oxidants in red wine polyphenols as
          found a postprandial enrichment
          LDL with polyphenolic flanonoides and
          markedly reducing their ten-
          tendency to oxidation; addition occurred
          decreased susceptibility
          aggregating these lipoproteins to another
          atherogenic modification makes and
          even a meal with red meat (which
          favor peroxidation compo-
          components of LDL by proxidante character
          iron ) , if it is accompanied by wine , Provo -
          ca a reduction in LDL oxidation
          even greater than in fasting conditions.
          
          On the other hand , macrophages enrichment
          two as polyphenolic compounds from
          in vitro or in vivo assays also reduced
          cen the oxidative state and as a result
          ing the oxidation of LDL mediated
          these cells . However, similar studies
          that have been used or wine phenolics
          derivatives presented negative results
          and you have failed to raise the capacity
          or plasma antioxidant resistance
          chemically induced oxidation
          LDL .
          Platelet aggregation contributes
          both the development of atherosclerosis
          as acute thrombus formation, it -
          guida embolization and cyclic reduction
          blood flow in coronary arteries
          damaged . Researchers at the University
          Wisconsin found a reduction in
          platelet aggregation of 49% in a
          experience in ex vivo coronary arteries
          dog after administration
          intragastric grape juice , not with the
          orange or grapefruit juice .         


          Also the purple grape juice increased the capacity
          and serum antioxidant protection to
          LDL oxidation , so that the juice
          Grapes , even with half the amount of
          wine flavonoids may be useful as
          alternative to this , with the advantage of not -
          have alcohol.
          It has been suggested that the beneficial effect
          so of red wine on myocardial
          infarction could be due in part to its
          vasodilatory properties ,
          however, the red wine at concentrations similar to
          those achieved by a consumption mode-
          rado not produce relaxation of arteries
          rabbit coronary and although
          Quercetin , a flavonoid their causes
          a marked endothelium - independent relaxation
          tooth makes at concentrations that
          not reached with moderate consumption of wine.
          The dependent vasodilator effect
          endothelium ( nitric oxide dependent )
          appears to be specific for wines produced
          two ' in barrique " , possibly because
          high content of substances
          polyphenolic , which exemplifies why we
          You can not have a single view of
          effects of any type of red wine.
          
          Some polyphenolic compounds
          wine reduce tumor growth and
          carcinogenesis in different experimental models .
          Mechanisms for these effects
          cough include inhibition of phospholipase
          A cyclooxygenase , phosphodiesterase and several
          protein kinase signaling linked to
          tion cell , plus the red wine is a
          of the important sources of flavonoids
          Diet , which are probably re-
          accountable for their properties antimu -
          tagénicas associated with these foods .
          
          These compounds or their metabolites are
          excreted in the urine , where they protect
          cells of the bladder carcinogen ,
          particularly in smokers , effects
          case to which it is possible in other localities
          organizations .         

dir="ltr"
          Resveratrol and quercetin , flavonoids STUDIED MORE WINE
          It has been suggested that the only property
          cardioprotective red wine lies in the
          action of flavonoids , minimal in
          white wine, not in Champagne. the
          Flavonoids are best investigated
          resveratrol and quercetin , with properties
          des more potent antioxidant than alpha
          tocopherol .
          Resveratrol is a fitoaloxina with
          several biological properties and
          Pharmacological and color depending
          characteristic of the wine.
          
          In vitro resveratrol has shown
          a strong antioxidant ,
          a phytoestrogen,
          an inhibitor of tumorigenesis ,
          one vasorelajador ,
          an inhibitor of aggregation
          ing platelet ,
          inhibitor
          cyclooxygenase 2
          and leukocyte
          polymorphonuclear neutrophils.
          I live in has also been checked
          antioxidant effect of resveratrol with LDL
          postmenopausal women , the effect
          inflammatory and antiatherogenic to inhibit
          bir the expression of adhesion molecules
          the endothelium in a murine experimental model ,
          having a cytostatic effect
          on colonic tumor cells through
          an alleged inhibition of cyclooxygenase 2
          and effect as
          antiplatelet rabbits
          hypercholesterolemic and healthy human volunteers .
          Some epidemiological studies have
          pointed out the crucial role of
          flavonoid quercetin in preventing
          cardiovascular disease due to its ca -
          antioxidant capacity shown in experimental
          ments in vitro .
          Quercetin is the most studied and well lavonoide other
          Compounds of this type , modulates
          causing eicosanoid biosynthesis with
          This anti-inflammatory, protects
ade -           more LDL from oxidation , prevents
          platelet aggregation and promotes the relationship
          attachment of vascular smooth muscle .
          
          Also in vitro has been shown that the
          Quercetin has properties antiprogestin -
          proliferative and anti-mutagenic ,
          However , in vivo data on absorption, bioavailability and metabolism after
          administration on human are rare and
          contradictory to clarify if it can be
          useful as a protective or curative des -
          after ingestion.
          Just as an example, the absorption after administrative
          oral administration has been reported
          between 0 and 50% , inconsistencies
          they may be partially attributed to
          the lack of an analytical methodology as
          sufficiently sensitive and specific for
          which the available data are still insufficient
          patients to clarify whether quercetin has
          some protective effect as part of
          components of red wine and other products
          cough vegetables.         

dir="ltr"
          OTHER ASPECTS
          Inconsistent results in studies
          human volunteers including I -
          fact that it has not reached a conclusion
          sion on the bioavailability and absorption
          wine polyphenols ,
          or in
          Some clinical trials have required
          intravenous administration of polyphenols
          at high concentrations probably
          not be achieved with diet or with supplementary
          dietary elements available today have
          open the question of whether the reduction
          mortality from diseases
          observed in cardiovascular drinkers
          Moderated may be due to phytochemicals
          wine, ethanol itself or to the diet of
          wine consumers .
          
          Also some
          trials have found no difference in -
          between different alcoholic beverages consumers
          das (wine, beer, spirits ) regarding
          protective effect of the cardiovascular system .
          If you join the above consumption
          Regular alcohol in large quantities
          no beneficial effects on sa -
          lud and really raises serious diseases
          des both gastrointestinal and
          neurological diseases, including some types of
          cancer, and increases mortality among drinkers
          usual response from other causes , such as acci-
          automobile dents .
          Most of the elements analyzed
is completed           critics of the use of wine as a source
          Alternatively you Phytochemicals .         

dir="ltr"
          CONCLUSIONS
          Although there is considerable evidence
          indicate that regular consumption of wine
          red to moderate doses may have effects
          protective against coronary heart disease cough
          and cardiovascular disease or some
          cancers, to date has not been
          able to clarify whether the biological activity
          polyphenols found in wine
          red is relevant to humans , and as the
          Alcohol carries some potential risks
          cial , medical recommendations
          consumption of red wine must be made very
          carefully until completion
          the necessary research, particularly
          mind is needed those using
          biomarkers and to evaluate the
          meaning of polyphenolic compounds
          in human nutrition and the prevention
          arteriosclerosis and cancer.         

dir="ltr"
          SUMMARY
          The regular and moderate consumption of red wine May produce additional benefitial effects on cardiovascular
          morbidity and mortality effects Compared with Those That the same amount of Alcohol Contained in other
          beverages would casuse . The red wine is rich in polyphenols, and resveratrol Particularly in quercetins , que are
          good candidates to explain the supposed protective effect of wine . Epidemiological studies Relating the ingestion
          of polyphenols to the risk for cancer and coronary heart disease Consider This is a convenient practice . Even though
          the recent results of in vitro and in vivo studies Conducted in experimental animal models and human outstretch to
          confirm the positive effects for health derived from the moderate consumption of wine as part of a balanced
          diet , the need of other researches to reach definitive conclusions is stressed .
          Subject headings : WINE , ALCOHOL DRINKING , ANTIOXIDANTS / therapeutic use ; CAARDIOVASCULAR
          DISEASES / diet therapy ; CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASES / prevention & control; FOOD MICROBIOLOGY .
          
          
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