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          The raw material for making wine , according to the legal definition ( alcoholic product obtained by complete or partial fermentation of fresh grapes, whether or not and / or must) , is the fresh grapes .
          Fresh grapes, according to EEC Regulation 822/87 , which approves the Wine Common Market Organisation (CMO ) , is the fruit of the vine used in the process of making wine, ripe or slightly overripe , on the ground or sunny, capable of be crushed or pressed by normal wine-cellar and which may spontaneously produce alcoholic fermentation media.
        The vine belongs to the family of Vitaceae , vines or shrubs and gnarled tendrils include aspect . The family of Vitaceae consists of 14 genera . And Muscadinia euvitis : in particular in the genus Vitis two subgenera are distinguished . From the first there is only one in the U.S. and Mexico cultivated species, Vitis rotundifolia , is used for the production of jams , ice cream ... The second is compose of three groups: the Asian group , the American group, to which belong the species used as patterns. Calls American vines and their crosses are used as rootstocks or patterns from the onset of phylloxera at the end of the last century , and who are resistant to this pest . Highlights some species such as V. rupestris , V. riparia or V. berladieri . Finally , the European group consists of a single species Vitis vinifera , they belong to all varieties of wine .         

Most varieties in Spain are varieties of indigenous population, which are characterized by their great adaptation to the environment in which they have developed over many years .
          The main red varieties existing in Spain are:
          Bobal, Garnacha , Tempranillo ( synonyms : Cencibel , Tinta del Pais , Tinta de Toro, Tinto Fino , Ull de Levre , ...) .
          In our case, the varieties used to make red wine is reduced to those authorized by the Rules of the Regulatory Council of the Denomination of Origin " Ribera del Arlanza " .
        The fruit is a cluster and in it there are two distinct parts . Rachis or scrape and grapes or berries
        SCRAPE .
        Also called the scrape scrape or stalk , form the structure or skeleton of the cluster. Their study, from the point of view is very important wine because it allows to know which substances can enter the wine when scratches are present during fermentation. The scratch can reach the winery in two states: green or mature ( lignified ) .
        Green scrape has high water content , chlorophyll , tannin , malic and tartaric acids , and minerals. During fermentation will give the wine a vegetal or herbaceous flavor .
        Mature scrapes contain less water , tannins , and free acids and are , however , a greater proportion of acid salts .
        During the fermentation in red , some of these substances are incorporated wines essentially increased acidity and tannin content , so that they become more tough and astringent . In the case of defective or hatched long fermentations , scratches can give the wine unpleasant and herbaceous flavors.         


          The berry or grape consists , as all fruit of three layers: exocarp , mesocarp and endocarp and seeds. In the case of grain , grape epicarp corresponds to the skin or skins and the mesocarp and endocarp constitute pulp . The endocarp or inner layer of the fruit surrounding the seeds and not unlike the mesocarp , together constitute the pulp. Finally , seeds or pips in number ranging from 1 to 4. There are also seedless varieties called apirenas and which are used as table grapes or for drying .
        The yield of wort by the Regulatory Council tax is 70 % higher yields imply lower grades. To obtain higher yields is necessary to apply very high pressures , so that the components of the remaining parts of the cluster must pass , and providing embateciéndolo herbaceous flavors .         


Description and composition of the skin .
          The skin forms the outer shell of the grain, is 7 to 8 % of the kernel weight . Its outer surface is coated with a coating called bloom Korea . On the skins and stems are yeasts . The skin contains malic and tartaric acids , potassium bitartrate or cream of tannins and coloring substances.
          The skins or skins contain most of color and aroma, and a decisive influence on the taste of the wines. In his contact with wine in the fermentation process can provide mainly water, malic and tartaric acid salts , tannin , coloring matter , flavoring, etc. .
        The skins of the grapes are coated with a waxy substance, called bloom , which many microorganisms present in the air , including yeast that trigger spontaneous fermentation stick . The proportion of acidity, tannin and acid salts varies depending on the ripeness of the grapes. The tannins , particularly differ greatly from one variety to another .         


nuggets and seeds.
          The pips or seeds are contained inside the grain and , four at most. Pose of 3 to 4 % of the total grain weight . By rich in tannins , when fermentation takes place in the presence of the solid parts of the cluster, the wine is enriched in tannin. They have an important role in fatty substances which can be extracted by pressure or with a solvent and used for industrial or food purposes content.
        The kernels or seeds also differ depending on the variety , and even grapes are usually devoted to table grapes, that lack them . The seeds have a hard outer layer and virtually no break in winemaking , but yield a small proportion of tannins to the wine.         


          The pulp has a consistency varying with the quality of the grapes . From a technical and economic standpoint , is the most interesting part of the grain as it contains the must .. It is 87 to 90% of the fruit. The wort is more dense than liquid water , complex composition. Contains sugars, free acids , cremor , nitrogenous substances and minerals . ,
          Pulp reside in the main components of the must ( water and sugars ) , that during fermentation into wine . These two sugars are hexoses , glucose and fructose , the former predominates in the beginning but by the end of ripening are nearly equalized .
          . SAMPLING .
          Also before downloading grape sampling is performed . The main objective of sampling is to determine the sugar content . The wineries buying grapes to vintners paid according to the probable alcoholic , hence prove important determination. Today it is an indispensable operation to be performed on all items of grapes are received , and they are required by Regulation Regulatory Council . This excludes all items of grape upon determination not naturally reach a minimum alcohol content of 11 °. Now also determine other parameters , but the sugar content is still the most important and is also faster than can be known by refractometry. Then, in the laboratory , the sample will be used to find the total acidity , pH ...
          Sampling may be done manually or by hydraulic probe . The manual sampling is performed by a device commonly known in the language bodeguero "spike " which is introduced into the mass of grapes repeatedly randomly . It is a device similar to the following :
          The must obtained from grapes punch is deposited on the surface of the refractometer , where alcoholic probably read . Graduation to zero for the next sample was performed with distilled water. The refractometer has proven very useful for determining the degree of maturity apparatus . Of all the measurement methods used to determine the density of grape must or sugar is the one that provides the most reliable values, because this measurement is not sensitive to turbidity and measured values ​​are easy to read . The difference between the actual temperature and the temperature pattern causes no serious read errors . It is the most widespread in the holds of Ribera del Arlanza for sampling mechanism .
          Other modern equipment are the equipment sampler consisting of a support of more than 3 m in height, from which emerges a hydraulic arm with vertical, horizontal, rotational and telescoping column. He tubular probe sampler that gets squeezed grapes and engages , obtaining a sufficient amount of juice to make it as far as sugars. This unit comes complete with a digital refractometer reading which gives the result in a short time .
          When receiving the grapes are in boxes , the difficulty is increased when taking samples and we have no choice but to select a random number of boxes .
          KEY STAGES OF WINE .
          The wine has three key features that distinguish it , color aroma and " palate " . Although there are different types of wines , all of them should be free of tastes and odors and also incorporate some nice flavors and smells that consumers associate the product in question, and in many cases the particular brand . The organoleptic characteristics of the wine, that is, those that can stimulate our senses , depends on many factors :
          Raw material:
          grape variety .
          geographical location
          applied viticulture
          Processing system .
          Storage conditions and time of consumption .
          Given these parameters , we should not talk about fine wines or worse , but different wines with different characteristics that give us different feelings . The wine processing , is dedicated to develop the flavor of the fruit, and that the use of untreated fruit would be a product with unpleasant taste , rough to the palate , without structure.
          Start with a vintage 3000-5000 Kg previously analyzed and selected grapes for the preparation of " walk Cuba ."
          This first selection is made with fruit about ten days in advance of the general harvest. It is especially important that selected to carry out this operation clusters are healthy and free from diseases.
          The procedure for collection follow the same path as the rest of the later games . Once we have the grape hopper is performed one sulphite to remove the acetic and lactic bacteria and ensure initial adequate for carrying out the fermentation yeast population
          Once in the winery , the grapes are put into a stainless steel tank of small capacity, which will start the process of fermentation. To take out the fermentation temperature storage should be adequate . It will be necessary for this reason supplying heat using air conditioners as the temperature of the vessel is not high enough, the absence of other deposits in grape fermentation, favoring the release of heat to the medium through an exotherm .
          The purpose of the preparation Foot Cuba , is to create an initial population of yeast, which after being added to other deposits enable starting the fermentation of wort contained therein , in less time , that if they were spiked . This is achieved through the development and growth of the yeast saccharomyces cerevisie present in the grape itself .

          Vintage or vintage is an operation of great importance for future quality wine.
          Determining the optimal time to harvest the grapes , the maturity of the grapes, their health status and how the collection is made, is critical in maintaining the quality of the raw material that should have been achieved over vegetative cycle of the vine.
          Regarding the first aspect , and maturity date is determined empirically by tracking the maturation process. However, estimates of harvest can be reversed by a weather anomaly, uninterrupted showers or permanent drought that delay normal development and maturation require to pick the grapes before or after maturity .
          When large areas are treated , it is difficult vintage all strains at the right time can take place , will have to start a little early to not finish too late. The weather occurrences such as hail and frost are rare in this season but the continuous rains can do the drudgery , lower grades and a loss of the crop due to rotting or falling grains. These real difficulties and risks that may cause it to anticipate harvesting grapes do not spoil us .
          In regards to the health of the grapes the biggest problem is usually presented by the rot . The grapes in the last stage of its cycle, and being very sweet , it is easy to develop rot if moisture conditions are high. Cinarea Botrytis is the most common species, but may involve other .
          In summary, it can be said that the start of the harvest will mark the state of the grape and its maturation . Currently the technical services of the Regulatory Council of the Denomination of Origin, kept continuously informed the bodegas on these issues , and they are the ones that more or less set the beginning of the harvest.
          There are two ways to perform the harvest:
          Manual .
          Mechanized .
          It proceeds to Vintage manually. This is the way is still the most common and has a number of advantages:
          Allows a selection of the clusters , including grapes.
          The grape remains whole , not broken , not squeezed or mostea .
          Allows staggered pickup , adjusting more than the optimum date .
          Scissors and " garillos " or " garullos " , a kind of knife curved , sickle-shaped but small , utensils are provided to harvesters to perform manual harvesting . These are some of the tools of vintage that still prevail in the hold , despite the passage of time and the advent of new technology.
          As regards the containers , it is still common to use traditional " baskets " or " cunachos " to collect the clusters intersecting strains . They are made with strips of brown interleaving from a wooden ring where the hole needed to be left two handles . Easy to use, bring the fruit to allow the transport vehicle . However, eventually it gives way to new technology and appear containers like buckets and plastic boxes, larger and somewhat heavier , trying to replace the material used by our ancestors in the grape harvest . These containers have a number of advantages , as its smooth surface allows better cleaning of equipment and its useful life is greater.
          Mechanized harvesting is allowed by the Regulatory Council of the Denomination of Origin practice. For their achievement should be reported to the Regulatory Council days before undertaken. It is a little operation by the winemakers of Ribera del Arlanza, but occasionally their achievement is necessary , as inclement weather does not allow manual picking grapes .
          The mechanical harvesters are machines which move along the line of plants , have a number of probes that hit clusters , desgranándolos and grapes fall into a collection cassettes which lead to a trailer . Often carry devices for sheet separation . This method of harvest has a number of advantages and disadvantages that are worth knowing .
          Advantages :
          Vintage allow a plot in a very short time, so that you can adjust the maximum optimal date of collection.
          Son or at least end up being more expensive than manual harvesting . Currently not being widespread they are not profitable for a single holding .
          Allow harvesting at night , which is of great interest in very warm areas, face from a raw material at a lower temperature .
          No cut bunches , but the grain threshed and collected . Then come as whole grape at the winery and in the manual collection , something is always lost wine. Therefore be highly recommended in some special preparations.
          Incorporates more leaves and bits of branch than manual harvesting.
          Systems require high driving vineyard.
          Crop losses occur . They are much improved and current losses occur only 5%.
          Transportation to winery , is a very important operation in winemaking because it will determine the future quality of the wine.
          The transportation of the grapes to the winery must meet the following requirements :
          Should be performed under conditions such that the grapes reach the winery whole possible .
          It should be as short as possible.
          To wort quality is theoretically better than the grapes arrive at the winery without being crushed :
          This the beginning of fermenting grapes footprint during transportation is delayed , although the weather is hot and the long road ahead .
          Leaching of the stalks and skins avoided, and must absorb less tannins during transport
          The must absorb less oxygen , because the berries remain intact until crushed . The less oxygen to dissolve and notice must, therefore be smaller oxidative changes that occur in it and later elapse best alcoholic fermentation.
          Avoid excessive crushing of the grapes and dirt during transport is required for this :
          Harvest and transport containers shallow .
          Limit the number of transvasases the strict minimum.
          Terms of cleaning large containers .
          Vintage protect from rain, dust, and processed quickly after harvest .
          The transport of grapes currently done in two different ways .
          Trailers or trucks.
          In smaller containers which in turn are loaded into trailers.
          The best system is the transportation in plastic boxes of 15-20 kg, the same in which the harvest is done . Stackable boxes which can be loaded and transported in the trailer easily . Moreover, as the weight is small, the grapes arrive perfectly whole . However, not all benefits in use since the winery must have a place to store the boxes for the rest of the year until the next harvest. If at the end without them vintage winery costs would increase the following year.
          An uncertain future are woven wicker baskets . Accommodates up to 115 kilos , allowed transport grape vineyard to the winery in good condition, because I was aerated without crushing . The complicated management and the need for maintenance ( should be prepared a few days before the Vintage mojándoles periodically to regain flexibility and repairing the areas most damaged by use) have motivated its progressive abandonment. In addition , the craftsmen who manufactured have virtually disappeared , so that it is increasingly difficult to replace deteriorated . The baskets are still in the Ribera del Arlanza belong to small growers who produce grapes destined for home consumption or older those who are led by custom or no longer dare to invest in modern trailer
          If wearing loose clusters , which is most common in the Ribera del Arlanza, meaning different are having stainless steel trailers with capacity for about 3,000 kilos , popularly called "bathtubs " . However, it is more common to see in the vineyards trailers for agricultural use , which must be protected with canvas or painting food to avoid direct contact grapes - sheet and thus contamination of the fruit with iron. Which greater use of the latter type of trailer , is mainly due to the excessive expense of purchasing an exclusive trailer for transporting grapes. The number of winemakers in Ribera del Arlanza title is great , but most of them combine farming with vineyard that usually occurs in smaller proportion , and not financially compensated for them to acquire this type of trailer called "bathtub" . The ability of these trailers for agricultural use is generally 5,000 kilos . The transport system in "bathtub" is normally used for agricultural trailers .
          The Regulatory Council of the Denomination of Origin Ribera del Arlanza, prior to harvest dates , edit rules on the transport of the grapes harvested so that it occurs without any deterioration in quality . These standards must be respected by all growers belonging to the PDO , and enforced through ancillary providers strategically placed at each winery . Some of the rules are:
          Using bags and plastic buckets , tin cans, etc. to transport the harvested grapes to the winery is prohibited. This fact prevents the aeration of the grapes and favors the onset of fermentation.
          The transportation of the grapes will be held in proper conditions of hygiene.
          Before vintage winery should be perfectly cooked and cleaned .
          The grape arrival is not continuous, normally concentrated in the early hours of the morning, the previous day vintage did not take time and late afternoon , the result of the day. This must be taken into account when designing the reception , unloading and in general, all winery equipment . It also does not usually get a constant amount every day, but the early days comes less in the central days of vintage comes as many called " peak days " and then back down the last days. With mechanical harvest this discontinuity is attenuated .
          The reception of the cellar, as in other industries , must be designed rationally, so that large accumulations do not occur. For wineries, is even more important because the faster the grapes are processed, the better for the quality of wine . In small wineries reception usually pose no problems , but in larger ones.
          Before unloading the vehicle , which is then tared to know the weight of the grapes coming weighed. The wineries can have a scale, or, in case of lack of it will travel to the scale of the village. Today most of the scales are automatic , although some wineries still prevail in the old manual scales .
          Download GRAPE .
          Once the game has been given grape pass after undergoing visual inspection, sampling and proceed to download it .
          Three systems basically download the grape.
          Download in stainless steel hoppers .
          Download on conveyor belts.
          Download via suction cyclone .
          The manner of discharge of grape depend on how desk . If the grapes arrive at the winery on trailers would typically downloaded hopper. When reception is in boxes is more consistent to use the tapes because if volcásemos the boxes above the hopper would be losing the benefits of transport boxes. The cyclone system is rare in the holds of Ribera del Arlanza .
          However, the bins remain the most common. In working in the red system is the most widespread discharge hopper . Moreover, when large quantities of grapes are processed no choice but to use hoppers.
          Hoppers can still be found in concrete, but it is currently hoppers are constructed of stainless steel . They can also prescribe tilting platforms to facilitate discharge hopper , those lacking transportation of trucks, and the absence of such system should manually downloading with shovels and " Garias " .
          Normally for discharging grapes is stainless steel hopper . The hopper carries an auger at the bottom , which allows downloading of grapes and at the same time make progress towards processing machinery . The hoppers can be prefabricated , there are different models on the market of stainless steel hopper , fully assembled , or as in this case factory , followed by a number of criteria . Must have double screw to prevent bridging . Other warehouses have only one screw , and the slopes of the hopper will be different to prevent accumulation of grape in the hopper . Nor should fit the screw much the same problem.
          The worm will direct the grape mass to one end , but other wineries direction of transport is toward the center.
          The hopper is located inside the winery , so the installation of any device to protect the grapes from adverse weather conditions is required. In the absence of such a roof to shelter that is suitable grape bins have a lid to protect the grapes stay there raw , rain , snow, hail , etc. . Generally all the grapes reaching hopper is processed immediately , unless it is small amounts , which carried out its processing would be retained in the pump not being enough quantity. It is advisable to place a device in the hopper automatic shutdown to allow access to its use by any person , if an object fall into the hopper during discharge.
          Dimensions typically range from about scales determined and that in this case are :
          Width : 2-3 m (above).
          1 m ( in the worm ) .
          Depth : 2-3 m ( as needed ) .
          Length : usually 3-6 m .
          There is another discharge system used mainly by wineries when receiving the grapes are in boxes. This is the discharge conveyor belts, above . It is increasingly common to harvest in plastic boxes , which are then transported to the winery in trailers . The main advantage of this system is that the grapes just takes damage and gets perfectly whole . It would therefore be a pity can overturn the boxes into the hopper . The best system is to lead them to the processing machinery stemmer -crusher or press on a conveyor belt . You can also download the boxes by hand, but only when the arrival rate is low. In short , the boxes are placed on the belt ( can also be carried on the belt the grape , no box , but is less common). The belt is driven by electric motors and has a device which allows to hold the box through the bottom . At the point of discharge, the same tape causes the dump box , pouring grape , continuing upside down . Then it is picked up by another belt , perpendicular , which leads to a washing boxes of boxes . The washer is provided with a projecting water jets towards the bottom of the housing tunnel.
          The advantages and disadvantages of the two systems are exposed systems :
          The treatment of the grape is much better in the boxes in the bin, because the grapes arrive intact for processing. Therefore, from the point of view of quality is better.
          The box system is more expensive, first because it is more difficult to machine download, more manpower is needed. And second , because the pace of download time is less . In large production must go to the hopper.
          The collection system in boxes and tape download allows selection of raw material.
          The hopper facilitates the handling of the raw material , it is ultimately a less complex system .
          In conclusion we can say that for working in white quality , with not very high yields and direct pressing of the grapes, definitely opt for boxes and tape download is advisable. In all other cases , in particular our case, is more profitable and advisable discharge hopper.
          Stripping - squeezed SCRAPES 5-10%
          YOUNG WINE (J ) WINE AGING ( C) / BOOK (R )
          GRAPE WINE .
          Alcoholic drinks have their origins in the alcoholic fermentation process . All sweetened this liquid undergoes spontaneous fermentation due to the action of yeast in the absence of air , destroying the glucose and other sugars producing carbon dioxide and ethanol .
Alcoholic drinks have their origins in the alcoholic fermentation process . All sweetened this liquid undergoes spontaneous fermentation due to the action of yeast in the absence of air , destroying the glucose and other sugars producing carbon dioxide and ethanol .
          The lifespan of yeast cells in the liquid is different from the mold and , while the latter living in the area , the yeasts grow in the body of liquid . Sometimes rise to the surface forming a film called : veil. Wineyeast , for example , is found on the vines in the period of maturity , the must passes at the stage of squeezing of grapes and then fermenting it begins to transform into wine.
          Alcoholic fermentation yeast species involved . The most interesting are:
          A. " Sacaromiectos "
          - " Saccharomyces ellipsoideus " . It is one of the most active in the wine yeast. Ferments glucose , sucrose and maltose .
          - " Saecharomyces apiculatu " . It is very important in wine fermentation and cider . Ferments glucose only . Stop playing when the alcohol concentration of a liquid reaches 3-4%. In the case of wine , when you reach that concentration starts acting the " S. Ellipsoideus " .
          - " Saccharomyces . Carlsbergensis " . It also develops in beer wort . Ferments glucose , maltose and sucrose .
          There is also harmful yeasts in alcoholic fermentation such as, among others:
          - " Saecharomyces pastorianus " . There are three varieties , one of which produces dry wines harsh taste . The other two act on beer producing turbid and bitter liquids,
          B. No " Sacaromiectos »
          - " Torula " . Form veil in fermented liquid communicating bitter and unpleasant flavors.
          - " Mycoderma vini " " M. Cerevisiae " · veil also occur on the surface of the liquid . The first is aerobic, transforming alcohol into CO2 and water ( flower wine ) .
          Preparation of special yeast is one of the problems of industrial fermentation because certain yeasts are chosen properly communicating the particular flavor different beverages .
          Because most of the yeast on glucose only operate while few do rnaltosa on dextrin and , in the production of alcohol for industrial scale is necessary to use rich fungal amylases which hydrolyse starch and dextrin .
          Some of these fungi continue the transformation obtained by decomposing sugars into alcohol , as in the case of " Aspergillus oryzae , which produces sake , booze, with 4 % alcohol and fruit flavor, obtained from the rice grains . In other cases must be associated fungi to yeasts.
          The operations by which the grapes are vinified known by the name of winemaking.
          Systems differ greatly from place to place depending on the wine to be obtained and the customs and traditions. But large groups of vinification : white , pink , claret , red, always respond to general patterns .
          The winemaking is art and art at the same time, but must be primarily the application of a knowledge of the general principles governing the phenomena of transformation of grapes into wine.
          The winemaking process involves a series of steps aimed at obtaining a quality wine . However, only one of these stages , fermentation , will be the true responsible for the transformation of grapes into wine process.
          The scheme of transformation of must into wine is complex and almost miraculous. In the past, before the discoveries of Pasteur , fermentation was interpreted as a process of spontaneous decomposition of organic matter as wort . Pasteur demonstrated that fermentation is produced by yeast when they live without air and transform glucose sugar that feed wort into alcohol and carbon dioxide.
          The schematic reaction might be:
          C6 H12 O6 = 2 CO2 + 2 C2 H6O
          Alcohol + glucose = carbon dioxide
          In reality this is true in 90 % of cases , but the fact is very complex and in addition to alcohol and carbon dioxide a large number of substances are obtained: acids , alcohols, etc ... , some in trace amounts .
          Some of these substances (glycerol , succinic acid, acetic acid, pyruvic acid ... ) play a major role in the organoleptic characteristics of wines.
          The wort to ferment, turbid , heated and releases carbon . It seems boiling and fermentation hence the name .
          The alcoholic fermentation is carried out by yeasts are unicellular fungi ascomycetes an approximate size of 2-6 microns and are found naturally in the topsoil of the vineyards.
          During the time of maturation adhere to the wax film with the berries ( bloom) to be transported by air or insects. So come to the winery when mixed with sweet must begin to develop and multiply.
          There are a large number of yeast species and strains which differ in their appearance , their properties, their modes of reproduction and how they transform the sugar . Wine yeasts belong to a dozen species each divided into genres. Yeasts to be in a favorable environment reproduce ( by budding and spore formation ) , multiply considerably and thereby encouraging intervention. In a few minutes incessantly double their number if they are in this favorable nutrient medium for development.
          For yeast that feed sugars , alcohol produced in the metabolism of the same is a waste product and thus inconvenient . Therefore, as they consume and produce sugar alcohol, the medium gradually becomes adverse them . However, natural selection has caused a balance is generated for each locality yeasts , including their resistance to alcohol and the natural sugar of the grapes produced there . Therefore alcoholic fermentation ends when practically all the sugar wine has been transformed into alcohol. There is always a small part called residual unprocessed sugar, measured and valued as reducing sugars.
          Monitoring the fermentation is essential and is reduced to control two parameters : temperature and density .
          4.4.7 . SULPHITING .
          The sulphite is the addition of sulfur dioxide in the processing of grapes. The sulphite is used since ancient times in winemaking , can be added to the grape must and wine. Nearly all table wines are more or less of sulfur dioxide in winemaking and during storage .
          The main properties that lead to sulfur use are:
          Antioxidant effect, its avidity for oxygen.
          Antioxidasic effect , by their ability to inhibit polyphenol oxidase .
          Antiseptic effect , especially against bacteria .
          The first operation takes place sulfited hopper where sulfur dioxide is added as potassium metabisulfite. Dosing is performed manually , as the grapes will be discharged into the hopper and transported to the interior of the winery by advancing the auger. When healthy harvests dose reach potassium metabisulfite is added to the grape is between 5-7 g . / Hl . However , the dose is greater when the health of the vintage is not right , because you have to make sure that the yeast population is sufficient. Sulfur dose is very important , because suboptimal dose leave the unprotected wine , and higher causes some problems, which are necessary to know :
          Sulfur combines , losing their properties , and the wine is unprotected .
          Can be induced the formation of undesirable compounds by sulfur metabolism of yeasts ( and subsequently sulphide mercaptans ) .
          The development of malolactic fermentation, which is carried out by lactic acid bacteria, and which is particularly sulfur avidity difficult.
          The wine has a pungent , irritating odor of sulfur dioxide and leaves at the end of the tasting a characteristic bitterness.
          Characteristic flavor and bouquet of the wine is neutralized .
          The distribution of sulfur must be done evenly and uniformly throughout the mass of must or wine . Sulfur will not be truly effective until it is intimately mixed . The freshly extracted juice has a great capacity for oxygen consumption, if a portion of the dough is not mixed , is unprotected .
          In addition to manual dosing sulphitometers exist , which are used in some wineries that can be fixed or mobile, manual or automatic .
          The simplest model is the manual attached to a rubber is introduced into the deposits , as required. To transport the liquefied gas bottle trucks are used. In this model, the gas previously dissolved in water so that the mixture will not be as effective .
          Currently in the cellars there sulphitometers automatic facilities , consisting of the following elements:
          A stainless steel tank for storing the aqueous solution of sulfur . This deposit can feed several sulphitometers . It is connected via a pipe to the gas cylinder and provided with water supply.
          A metering pump, which is the real sufitómetro . Able to deliver exactly the amount of solution required .
          One or more nozzles , onto the harvest line .
          A flowmeter for flow and sent a suction filter to remove any impurities.
          Automation .
          This installation can be coordinated with pump vintage , so dosed volume sent by it. Ie the metering pump only works when it does pump vintage .         


stripping - crushing.         

stripping .         

stripping involves separating the scrape of grape. It can be done before or after the extrujado has been conducted before. Although current grape crushers treated gently and in principle should not break the stalks , it seems logical that some friction occurs. Then if you want to reap the benefits of stripping should be done prior . These benefits are:         

prevents the wort transfer of flavors and off-flavors ( bitter , herbaceous , " green " ... ) , substances that come from scratch and harden embastecerían and wine.         

a significant decrease in volume is achieved incubate . Weight is not more than 5-7% , in normal conditions, but reaches 30 wt %.         

greater color extraction during maceration is achieved because the scrapes absorb dyestuff .         

wines of greater alcoholic strength are obtained , because the stalk contributes water . In general , changes the composition of the wine have higher acidity and lower in potassium .         

facilitates temperature control , since the scratches absorb much heat.         

However, the stripping has some drawbacks, as it hinders pressing, fermentation, and sometimes it is blamed to oxidize the wort .         

The technology used for this type of operation responsive to a horizontal machine , comprising a metal casing within which is housed or perforated cylinder and a shaft provided with paddles . The grapes fall from the top hopper into the barrel and the effect of the rotation of the blades , the scratches are removed and the grains tend to pass through the perforations of the cylinder. The beads are collected by the bottom and often passes directly to crusher . Scrapes exit on the opposite end of the crusher .         

blades rotate at low speed, to avoid damaging the grape and the drum in the opposite direction , thus improving the separation of grains and scrapes . The crusher is made of stainless steel.         EVACUATION


scrapes are by-products of the stripping operation . These are highly polluting , hence discharge to land is illegal , and is heavily penalized. Scrapes should remove them as soon as possible from the cellar. Such products are intended for sale to specialized companies , which used to make animal feed . For disposal of the residues , vacuum scrape is used, whose team would consist of :         

A pneumatic aspirator driven by an electric motor.         

hopper off the crusher .         A pipe that carries

scrapes to an appropriate location .         


crushing is to cause rupture of the skins and pulp evolution to facilitate the exit of the juice , without breaking or dilacerar solid parts .         

crushed will have two main functions in the winemaking process :         Propicia

seeding yeast mass , following the dispersion of juice and aeration.         Facilitates

maceration , because it increases the contact surface of juice - skin .         

rubber roller crusher technology is usually employed to carry out this operation. In these machines the produced crushed grapes being compressed between two rolls rotating in opposite directions. The grape also comes from the top , through a hopper , which leads to the body of the machine where the cylinders are housed. These are placed in parallel .         

eccentric cylinders are housed in boxes to regulate their separation as a function of grain size, the state in which you are vintage and degree of grinding you want to achieve . Also carried a clutch system that makes separating the cylinders in the case of foreign bodies (stones , metals ... ), which could damage the surface thereof are introduced. The rollers rotate at low speed , not to destroy the grapes .         

are cylindrical rollers with mating profiles , with which the friction increases and thus the performance of the machine . The cylinders are made of rubber , which grape treatment is very smooth .         

The main advantages are:         Treatment

very soft vintage .         

variable spacing and , therefore, degree of crushing optional .         

High yields.         

minimum aeration .         

breakages occur in solid parts , or tears .

this type of machine also presents some problems stemming from misuse. The crushing may be too much if the cylinders together .
                 There is another variant

crusher , whose use has been displaced by the roller crushers , and answer to the name of crushers of high speed centrifugal action . This type of machine has been banned by the Regulatory Council of the Denomination of Origin Ribera del Arlanza , as they cause strong aeration of the mass , by applying the centrifugal force.

MACERATION .         Once

has been stemmed and crushed Vintage deposits should be up to incubate and start mashing . The mass transport takes place via pumps and pipes pastas . Slurry pumps like the harvest should gently try and avoid mass vents , but the truth is that this transport is not good for the quality of the final product must be taken to shorten it and do it in the best possible conditions . After downloading the deposit must also be careful trying not to crush and hit the ground too .

Once the grapes in the tank should not be filled more than 80 % , to avoid overflow once fermentation starts, tank filling begins , during which the maceration takes place .         

maceration is the most decisive of the red winemaking process. They know very well the principles which govern and factors involved .         

During this stage not only the color, but all the components that we are going to determine the final wine organoleptic characteristics is obtained. Among these components are the polyphenols and tannins , extract the compounds responsible for the aromatics, which may be considered positive . But responsible for tastes and odors vegetables generally undesirable substances are extracted .         

choosing a suitable reservoir for ink vintage barreling must consider two aspects which are handled pastas and at the beginning of fermentation , carbonic gas evolved increases marc, nuggets and other suspended particles and forming a upper layer named hat.         

reservoir model used for the most common is barreling vertical stainless steel tank autovaciante . It is a cylindrical tank , vertical design , similar to that used for white , made ​​of stainless steel AISI -304 , except the last shell , equipped with water curtain cooling system is up to the hat and other accessories . The fundamental difference is in the devices for the treatment of the pastes . These containers have a conical bottom , diverted to the front. Furthermore, a set of grids carry at the lower perimeter of the tank, adapted to the bottom, to facilitate the bleeding. And finally, take a system to remove the skins. Have a lower door of sufficient width to easily evacuate .         

new technology today has made possible the existence of the deposits for this operation by coupling systems stirring inside to facilitate homogenization of pasta .

pumping .         

are pumping operations for the maceration of red to facilitate the extraction of substances from the skin , but mostly to promote their dissemination throughout the body of liquid .         

traced involves removing the liquid from the bottom of the tank and add the top. Can be done in the same reservoir or an intermediate one interlayer . This operation is achieved :         Aerate the mass

encouraging further development of yeast , higher fermentation activity and an increase in temperature. This can be a problem in some cases .         

greater homogenization of the entire mass .         

maceration and increasing the dispersion of the extracted substances .         

the pumping loss of sulfur and alcohol by evaporation.

traced are then performed to fill the Cuba . To homogenize its contents, and 20-24 hours after the end of fermentation. After this operation is repeated twice a day for the duration of the maceration period . For accuracy , these pumping will distribute one evening and one morning.         

To perform this operation, the winery uses the pumps used for racking . Is pumped directly from the bottom of the reservoir to the surface .         


FOOT CUBA .         

Cuba prepared to walk home winemaking is added on deposits to encourage the start of alcoholic fermentation .         ALCOHOLIC FERMENTATION


barreling Once the wort is allowed to stand for fermentation to take place , allowing the true transformation of grape juice into wine.

Fermentation is the key phenomenon in the winemaking process . Without it we would not have wine and as we can assume , if not cared to take place under the best possible conditions , we shall not obtain quality wine.         

The fermentation lasts approximately 10 to 15 days during the first 8-10 days tumultuous fermentation takes place , in which the yeast activity is maximal . Coincides with the point of steepest descent of the density and the maximum release of carbon and increased temperature . After the nutrient level of the wort down , is just sugar and alcohol consumption begins to be toxic to yeast. The fermentative activity slows, lowering density is very slow, the release of carbon reduced and the temperature is maintained . During the days of fermentation the winemaker is responsible for taking the data of daily temperature and density .         

fermentation tanks have also evolved significantly in recent years , although it is very common to find in any cooperative Ribera concrete shells , sometimes as merely decorative and other instruments to provide usage. They are big bowls of concrete and iron armor . Usually in the form of use, which is then closed with brick at a certain height , leaving depopulation . The concrete tanks should be covered to avoid the contribution of CaCO3 , being attacked by the acids in wine . Inert , waterproof and shock resistant , the wash solutions and acidic wine coatings are used. The most common are epoxy resins , although there are others. The Regulatory Council of the Denomination of Origin requires wineries that use this type of deposits inside coated with such coatings before harvest . This type of deposit has a number advantages and disadvantages that I need to enumerate .         

Advantages : Different uses (fermentation , storage ... )         

Easy to clean.         Easy


Long life .         

relatively low price .         

Disadvantages : Expensive Maintenance .         

difficult to evacuate the heat during fermentation.         The most widespread

Ribera del Arlanza deposit is the stainless steel tank . The stainless steel used in a group of non-magnetic and within the austenitic , which means that this is essentially an alloy of iron with chromium and nickel. Is type of reservoir is formed from two different grades of steel AISI 340 and AISI 316 . All the reservoir is formed by the type of steel AISI 340 , except for the last shell , which consists of AISI-316. Is performed in this way, during fermentation since the evolution of carbon can lead to an accumulation of sulfur in the top of the tank . These deposits are laid on concrete blocs order to avoid the         

moisture. These deposits have a number of advantages and drawbacks .         

Advantages :         

are immutable and innocuous.         

They have an almost perfect seal         

easy cleaning and disinfection .         

have a good heat exchange capacity , so that the heat evacuating good fermentation . In addition they can be adapted easily temperature control systems : shirts, coils ...         

No maintenance required and its duration is almost limitless.         

They hold a wide range of pressures .         

can be built in different sizes and models , wide versatility.         


About the only drawback is its high price.         

The fermentation is an exothermic process that releases energy to the medium as heat. High temperatures during fermentation are not adequate, and in extreme cases can even be dangerous , as can occur in the fermentation stops , increased alcohol loss by evaporation , loss of varietal aromas ...         

fermentation temperature is usually between 20 to 26 º C. Sudden increases in temperature during fermentation must be controlled. For this there are a number of direct methods, we help to lower the temperature to appropriate levels.         

system used to monitor sudden increases in temperature during fermentation is the shower curtain or water. Consists in falling over the entire outer surface of the tank water curtain , through a perforated pipe is placed at the top along the perimeter of the tank. The foundation of refrigeration is the same as the " jug " . The water evaporates and the curtain to change state needs to absorb heat , which takes in the tank . You have to get the water layer is very thin , so that evaporation occurs.         The moment

winemaker notice a sudden increase in temperature during fermentation will start the cooling system. At the bottom there is a gutter to collect water and send it to a septic tank, and the water used to cool the tanks does not get recovered.         

The main advantage of this system is the simplicity of installation and therefore its low cost of investment. Against arguably only gets a few degrees lower in temperature, but they are sufficient in our case , as in the Ribera del Arlanza the temperatures of the days during which the fermentation takes place are not too high . The cost of water is significant in this system.         

Another more extensive cooling systems , is the cooling jackets . As the water curtain is installed on the tank , and inside these cooling jackets circulates chilled water. The jacket is constructed , like the tank , and coated stainless steel material of an insulator . Inside the jacket are the channels of circulation of water. Is arranged concentrically to the tank .         

tanks can have two shirts a year depending on your volume. Normally, to 50,000 liters is enough with one. This sleeve is placed on the top, in the region of the hat .         

The main advantage with this method is that it has allowed more degrees lower temperature than the water curtain . Water consumption is lower because it allows water circulation without being recovered in a cooling tower .         

racking .         

racking is the end of maceration . Consists of deposit bleed bottom extracting fluid to carry another tank where fermentation end if you have not already done so. The pulps were then removed and taken to the press to extract the rest of must - wine left.         

barreling end is very important for the product quality point . The winemaker is responsible for determining the optimal time to perform the racking . This uses a series of analyzes performed in the laboratory in which a number of parameters such as density , color is determined and tasting will be held to determine the organoleptic characteristics of the wine . Without doubt the sensory test is the most complicated , as it depends on many factors its proper performance . The decision of the winemaker and largely depends on the success or failure of her winemaking process.         

descuban young wines before wine for aging. This is because during breeding , part of the coloring matter precipitated and lost. In addition to supporting a wine aged in perfect conditions should have a proper "home", this includes loading and dye extract.         Vintage

When recepcionada has been of good quality is subjected to prolonged maceration because it is where you can get more . On the contrary, when dealing with poor quality harvest , time of incubation is reduced.         

To perform the operation of racking we have the self-emptying tanks described above we facilitate the operation.

PRESSED .         

pasta should be removed from the tank to the press to get the juice - wine that still have . The liquid is removed from the bleeding is the best quality, " tear " , which will go to the best wines. The press can be separated into various grades. The obtained low pressure is also of high quality and can join the above. The higher pressures is a " press" and will go to ordinary wine . Once the grapes are introduced into the separation of the press juice of the grape , the wine is produced , contained in the vacuoles of the cells from the pulp of the berry, by pressure , the drying up of the marc .         

press is a fundamental operation in winemaking since its proper performance depends on the quality of the future came , hence we should take into account a number of factors when performing the operation :         

pressing means separation of the juice, the crushed or squeezed corresponds to another operation.         

very high pressure does not shorten the pressing time , it makes faster clogging drainage canals wort .         

Higher pressures over a long time period do not favor the performance of the press . It is preferable to apply stronger pressure on short and frequent intervals. Then drop the paste and reapply again .         

thickness vintage mass influences the performance of the operation, to an applied pressure . If the thickness is very large does not make sense to apply heavy pressure .         crushed prior

does shorten the pressing time . The grapes are further broken and therefore the cells , the higher the exit velocity of the juice .         Some factors

quality carried out during the pressing operation , predict obtaining a quality wine and turn depend on the type of press used .         

Besides the above regarding the relationship between applied pressure and yield higher quality musts small pressures are obtained . As we increase the pressure that must be of lower quality.         

system that exerts pressure should be treated gently trying not produce vintage dislacerado or breaking solid parts , which help to increase the sludge content in the wort , which embastecen the product and bring unpleasant flavors.         

prolonged pressing, especially if there is breakage of solid parts or whole grapes are pressed promotes maceration with scratches , pips ... which is to the detriment of the quality of wine . Also increases the oxidation and the color intensifies.         

press must be constructed so that the vents are minimal.         

Whatever type of press used , the must be split according to the pressures applied for obtaining and caring for separating different qualities.         

Throughout the years, the pressing operation has probably been one that has evolved from a technical point of view. They have been using different types of media , which have been improved over time. Currently you can see how centenarians live nowadays systems , like the ancient wineries, with the most modern technologies.

pneumatic membrane press is used for pressing operation. Presses are horizontal axis, but inside exists a membrane that exerts pressure on the vintage when it is inflated by air.         

They consist of a stainless steel cylinder into which the membrane is housed and makes press chamber . The press is charged by a side gate , one to turn fills the membrane begins to swell and , therefore, to be pressed grapes. You can apply multiple cycles with increasing pressures , the membrane between each cycle is deflated so that the pasta is released. The drum can be rotated to facilitate crushing and final discharge of marc . The bag takes up only the bottom of the drum , adapting to this more or less halfway. Grape presses to swell against the opposite side thereof and the wort flows through a longitudinal channel parallel to the generatrices of the cylinder , to a collecting tray . The drum is constructed of stainless steel and the drip tray and all parts in contact with the must . The membrane is of a nylon fiber, very flexible and high strength .         

This type of press has a variant that unlike the arrangement of the membrane. This release is called axial or central lung press, in which the membrane is hold concentrically to the longitudinal axis . By pressing the grapes swell against the walls of the drum, which is perforated to facilitate the exit of the must. This allows the axial load.         Such presses

carry an automaton, where you can store different pressing programs , combining cycles and increasing time pressures. Operation is fully automatic .         

Such presses have a number of advantages and disadvantages that should be listed:         

Advantages :         

pressures are small ( 2.5 Kg / cm2) and the form of very gentle pressing , the juice so obtained is considered high quality .         

danger wort oxidation is minimal , even in the second type, where wort is collected by the drainage channels and led to a collector without actually being in contact with oxygen .         Although soft

pressures applied , the operation efficiency is high, because the pressure is applied around the drum . In this aspect the variant presents major advantages in that the pressure is exerted radially in all directions around the axis . Then in this press times are lower.         

are easily automated and management is relatively comfortable.         

capabilities are average , very similar to having the other horizontal presses.         

Disadvantages:         Although

has improved charging system , including central lung presenting axial load remains discontinuous. You must charge the press, and then press download to refill later. In this they can be passed from 2 to 3 hours . Then do a very delicate and effective pressing but it takes time .         

Probably the main drawback of is its high price . They are very expensive and proportionally , how much they have less capacity , because what is more up the controller. We think that the press is used as much as 2 months a year and should be considered much your choice , to make it profitable .         

current wine companies , the trend towards increasingly large capacity presses , cheaper is greater as they give better performance. They are called "continuous" presses. While previous work with very low pressures but batchwise continuous screw presses require a considerably higher pressure . However, its performance is more economical , due to the reduced pressing time and the simplification of work.         

presses grape worm is pressed against the previous closing valve against an adjustable cone or by a transport screw rotates slowly within a perforated cylinder , the crushed grapes are sealed against the valve adjustable closure or cone , forms a plug and thus establishes a pressure drop in direction towards the outlet of the pomace . Grape recoil being loaded by a retaining device is avoided. In this case the screw does not rotate continuously , but is hydraulically pressed forward by the piston ; press tread rests against grape pomace cap before the door of stagnation . Then the worm moves back and conveys the fresh tread grape marc towards the compartment . The press does not rotate, and repeat the process.         

Despite the economic benefits and performance that represents the use of this type of press , offers a number of drawbacks.         

pressures are very strong, to fully deplete the skins , the later fractions extracted wort , which are of lower quality.         

breaks solid parts ( nuggets ) can be produced by the friction between the screw and the bale chamber . This is pretty bad for the quality of the future wine.         

This type of press (screw) has been banned by the Regulatory Board in developing protected by the Designation of Origin wines. Likewise the same Regulatory Council Regulation clearly states : " Suitable pressures for extraction of juice or wine and its separation from the skins , so that the yield does not exceed 70 liters of wine or must apply for 100 kilograms of vintage         FERMENTATION

MALOLACTIC .         

is a controlled process carried out by lactic acid bacteria present in the wine . During transformation malolactic fermentation of malic acid which is part of the composition of wine to lactic acid takes place .         red wine

considered bacterial decomposition of acidity quality factor : no decomposition of the true red wine acidity is produced. On the one hand due to the increase in pH due to lactic acid and lactic acid decomposition and decomposition of malic acid , and secondly due to metabolic products, which have influence on the taste of the wine , causing rounder , soft ...
                 Lactic bacteria

carrying out this operation are sensitive to SO2 . SO2 not only outdoor , but , about 50 mg of sulfurous acid bound activity can inhibit delay and delay the decomposition activity and acidity . With which one should be very careful when dosing sulfur hopper since overdose may prevent you from conducting the malolactic fermentation.         

The optimum temperature for the development of malolactic fermentation is above 20 ° C. At these temperatures the activity of lactic acid bacteria increases. Lower temperatures lead to the inhibition of the activity of these bacteria , delaying the processing of lactic acid to malic acid . The malolactic fermentation takes place during the winter months , when ambient temperatures are low. At such temperatures slows process may even stop. To avoid this, the ship has in developing a climate control system in order to maintain proper temperature.         


REST IN TRUST .         

is normal wines after fermentation appear turbid . With time and racking a natural sedimentation occurs . On the one hand suspended particles will settle out by gravity. Furthermore wine colloids : tannins , proteins, and pectins , can lose stability for different reasons ( polymerization phenomena and coagulation action of enzymes pectolíticos ) forming and sedimenting flocs . That is, the wine remains for a time in the tank to finish with a clean look.         


Sometimes , the process of particle settling is very slow so you have to force and accelerate the process by clarifying . Young wines should go on the market soon and not enough to clarify that spontaneously while also always remain substances in wine that could destabilize colloidal nature and muddy wine later in the marketing process . This would be a pretty serious flaw.         

present is very difficult for a wine hits the market without being filtered . The practice of filtering has been extended because the consumer does not usually accept appear sediments at the bottom of the bottle. Are used to perfectly clean and bright wines and this can be achieved easily by filtering . However, the presence of " sludge " is not always indicative of a defect . Those skilled in the art consumers prefer that great wines , which are usually red long aging in barrels and cylinder submit these " dregs " . This type of consumers consider a quality factor . In addition , many experts do not advocate or even filter these wines first, because its long aging period allows them to make a natural clarification and secondly, because they believe that to pass through the filter is going to lose essential components for quality .         

most used type of filter to perform filtration is diatomaceous earth of different classes.         

This type of filter ( diatomaceous earth ) is so named because the filter bed consists of a layer of filter cake or in this case land of diatoms, although other types of land. To form the bed these filters usually have a tank fitted with stirrer, which is pre-mixed with the wine lands . The support is constituted by horizontal discs or plates fitted inside the filter body , around a central axis . The filter cake on these plates by passing a mixture of water and land by the filter is formed. Wine enters through the bottom , also mixed with diatomaceous earth and the effect of pressure , it tends to pass through the cake inside out plates , and filtering , by the central drive.         The high performance

diatomaceous earth filter widespread use in most wineries .         Other clarifiers

filters that competes with the above is the filter plates . This plate consists of cellulose fiber having a pore size determined by the degree of filtration . Usually, these pores are reduced in the direction of advancing flow , so that the wine dirtier first enters the larger pore plate and goes through smaller pore plates as it cleans . This achieves increased filtering capacity and prevent Colmate filter .         

One of the main problems with this type of filter is the possible development of mold on its surface , which can lead to unpleasant tastes and odors in wine.         

cold stabilization .         

After the filtration proceeds to the application of cold wine to precipitate these substances in wine that are labile at low temperatures (proteins , crystals, tartrates ... ) . The wines for consumption are currently subject to a fast finish for financial reasons. Often the process lasts only a few weeks. A disadvantage of this accelerated finishing manifested in the tendency of these wines to precipitate tartrate crystals and other bottled if once they are subjected to low temperatures .
                 Efforts are made to

accelerate crystallization of tartrate precipitation and get the wines are stable in tartrate         It is known

tartrate precipitates after fermentation , the greater the differences in temperature and therefore faster and more complete precipitation of the tartrate . The more slowly fermented wort and regular is the fermentation temperature , the slower and less tartar precipitates. This can lead to a part thereof remain long in the wine in supersaturated solution , precipitating continuously and even longer in the bottle if the wine has been bottled soon.         

stabilization takes place in stainless steel tanks , subjecting the wine to a subcooling and mantiéndolo to a temperature near the freezing point. The approximate temperature at which the wine must undergo is calculated by the following formula :         


Temperature º C = + 0.5 to 1.0         

wine in the tank is maintained at the temperature obtained by applying the above formula for a period of time between 8 and 15 days .         

FILTRACIÓN .         

Then, after the period of cold stabilization , proceed to the filtrate in order to remove tartar and crystals. The filtering system used in this operation is the same as used previously.         

barrel aging.         Once completed

rest tank wine, it is introduced in French and American oak to start a long aging period , whose duration depends on the type of wine that is intended to develop ( crianza, reserva or gran reserva ) .         

wooden barrel has a typical influence on the evolution and the finished wine . Until such time that the wine has reached sufficient maturity to be bottled , this influence is positive . Will be more intense the higher the quality of wine , and no other type of container can influence the wine in the same way as do the wooden barrels. This influence will be more insignificant the lower the quality of the wine and the shorter finish.         

However, when the rearing period is too long, the wine stored in the barrel breaks down more and more. The decline in quality eventually ends in a dry taste, wood ...         

winemaker will be responsible for sensory analysis determined by the time which ended the barrel aging and bottling stop by decanting wine or a deposit. If you miss this optimal point, the value of wine descend more or less rapidly.

A very important factor to consider during the rearing period are the losses that occur in barrels filled to the cap. These quantities of wine as a result of the evaporation temperature changes , loss of CO2 absorption wine by the wood of the barrel , etc . Are removed from the container and must be replaced for wine filling.         

shrinkage ratio , often substantial , is one of the main defects in container finish as it produced significant drawbacks for wine :         On the surface

harmful microorganisms grow wine , often even though the protection provided by a nitrogen blanket or by ineffective sulphite .         

the boundary between the wine and the air increased aldehyde content and with a loss of SO2, a harmful oxidation and some alterations in the wine is produced .         

loss of carbonic acid and aromatic substances, especially volatile " bouquets " occurs more quickly.         

decline involves not only the loss of wine , as also the alcohol content can be reduced in some cases.         

To prevent harmful oxidation and damaging the development of aerobic organisms , proceed to a newspaper filled barrels and continuous monitoring of the breeding operation . The filling is a measure in the case of wooden barrels necessarily applied after each sampling . Is performed periodically , every 15 days. If the filling is neglected, will soon clear the influence of the air bubble on the smell and taste of the wine through the wine detrimental to the free surface increases .         

filling is made using a stainless steel pitcher to avoid possible contamination of the product with iron.         

What sets the crianza, reserva and gran reserva wines is the duration of the process of aging in barrel and bottle aging . These minimum limits are fixed barrel aging for each type of wine in the regulation of the Regulatory Council.         

will be very important to control the temperature and humidity of the aging cellar , as it will influence wine wastage . Thus, in spring when as a result of temperature rise , the wines are dilated , it is best not to touch the barrels , because each time the cap is opened wine losses are then produced . In the aging cellar is arranged a climate system , to mitigate the influence of external temperatures on the ship.

SULPHITING .         

Prior to bottling young wines , we proceed to the dosage of sulfur , to promote proper wine storage throughout its life. The right dose should be added , since spend could lead to problems in the consumer for his irritating character. Doses below the optimum would leave the unprotected wine being exposed to possible oxidation and microbial contamination.         

winemaker is responsible for measuring the amount of free sulfur dioxide that is dissolved in the wine and accordingly add the dose to be variable. The sulfur correction is performed to achieve an approximate amount to 25 g / hl of sulfur free wine at bottling , which ensures the preservation of the product .


understand alterations in the generic sense those changes found in the organoleptic characteristics and properties of wine.         

ends we seek are :         

stop the cause of the disturbance         

ensure the health of wine         

restore the integrity of those components affected by the alteration and destruction of products that cause it.         

causes arrest is achieved in almost all cases. Not solve the other two points , as there are serious difficulties in it .         

alterations , may have different origins and appearances , it is necessary to identify the causes and distinguish the causes for defects and diseases.         

defects found genesis in cases of physical and physicochemical nature . The diseases are due to causes of a biological or directly derived from the activity of microbes, or even drastic action substances that can act independently of the organisms that produced them .         

Defects of smell and taste         Taste


Some confuse the unmistakable and well distinguishable from mold mildew in the league flavor. Others take it for the same thing . It is easy to differentiate .         

slight rusting occurs particularly in wines from moldy grapes and is subject to disappear after some time, when not incorporated in wine and is solved as an organoleptic improvement especially in stale wine . This flavor derives above all the development of the " Botrytis cinerea " . Sometimes can appear for fungal vegetations in the containers.         

Unlike the defendant in addition to taste lingering rust never favored. Originates from molds of the genus ' Penicillium glaucum or crustaceum " " aspergillus " , etc ... that attack damp container of wine . Its unique taste and smell give it some essential oils produced by mold. They fight in various ways , the most effective is oil in fine , healthy and odorless oil.         

Not long ago we have introduced the use of used vegetable oil instead of pure liquid paraffin .         

Another method that gives good results is to use 15 -20g . per hectolitre of mustard flour .         

coal can also be used at 50 -100g . hl .         


due to poor maintenance of the tanks , barrels and so on, the worse the chestnut . In general it is not easy to remove , you can attenuate the blood of beef , mustard or charcoal         FLAVOR


alteration comes from the seeds or other vegetable oils . Remedied with charcoal         


unpleasant bitter taste , which is revealed easily inmergiendo in a sample of wine a smooth wire and effect electrolytic copper is deposited on iron which turns red. The excess is removed by precipitating the insoluble copper sulfide with a pre-fermentation in the presence of 8- 10g . sulfur per hectolitre.         

smell of rotten eggs , hydrogen sulphide         

gas is formed as a result of an enzyme reducente , made by fermenting alcoholic . The best method of removal is the movement in the air and then put the wine in barrels sulfur well .         


cloud FERRIC         

comes from an excess of iron salts , natural or accidental cause. It is natural when it is derived from the field , which is not yet common. It is almost always accidental , due to have been the wine . contact with iron tools .         

be prevented by avoiding the possibility of contact with iron objects .         

iron passes into solution state of soluble salts. Ferric turbidity is revealed only when the wine is contacted with the air , since oxygen under the action of ferrous salts become ferric salts by combining with tannin and leading to an insoluble compound ( ferric tannate) precipitating cause - do the cloud . Such obfuscation is further assisted by the weak acidity. It is noted in this connection that tartaric and citric acids, attend better keep iron in solution .         

Generally , wine contains iron in its organic constitution in a dose of 10 to 12 milligrams per liter . But turbidity derived from the percentage increase due to foreign factors.         

whites more often subject to phosphatic haze due to the formation of a compound given by the colloidal iron phosphate , which often to the sunlight becomes soluble , that is, neutralizes the defect .         

reluctant reader ventured into the winemaking technique may say that ferric cloud oxidásico be confused with , because it has almost the same morphological characteristics. Effective - mind, at first glance this observation seems accurate. But if the difference is discussed with an expert eye , it appears unmistakable. Be recognized by some specific and better yet singularities because ferric cloud disappears just a strong acid (HCl ) is introduced into the wine. If you want to define the root cause , simply make a small informative essay . When the suggested experience has not convinced the operator , then pasteurize agree a sample, and after having ex - aired , control their behavior. If after this treatment the wine becomes turbid again , it means that it is ferric cloud , if it appears limpid , however , is oxidásico cloud .         

To remedy this defect before citric acid was used, but should not be considered as a safe and effective remedy provided . Today it is advisable to raise the pH to a partial deacidification , to bring the pH of the wine to a favorable value for the precipitation of colloidal iron salts , with the addition of casein , except then, once finalized correction , restoring tartaric acid and citric acid.         

phosphatic cloud         

Often , particularly in white , a thin gelatinous precipitate that is formed candle wine . This issue occurs when the wine is exposed to air and can absorb oxygen, while in the opposite case such a phenomenon does not develop. The clouding is due to precipitation offerric phosphate.         

only advisable to prevent clouding and to remedy this is to remove excess iron procedure.         Sun exposure

out of contact of air, it can sometimes get recovery temporarily lost the clarity of wine.         And blackening cloud


is a fairly common condition caused by a yeast ( enoxidasas ) which oxidizes tannin and coloring substances and precipitates blur -do and blackening the wine.         

The manner in which , as it develops in white or red wines , presents definitive and diverse characters with respect to their intensity . Sometimes confined to minor changes in color, others significantly changes the tone to the point of returning the gray or black wine, also other oxidative process is accentuated by precipitating coloring substances , tannin xanthophyll , and chlorophyll quercilina . In addition , the wine presents those specific ad - singularities want unpalatable stew .         

latter altered state is called color break (" casse " in French ) .         

effect occurs when wines subject to alteration are exposed to air and cause lies in the activity of an enzyme discovered by Bertrand oxidant , which is always present in normal or abnormal amount in wine and first in the grape juice.         

prevents bad discarding moldy grapes . A good prophylaxis involves blanching the grapes before crushing, or also vigorously aerate the wort just was obtained .         

clouding or blackening oxidásico remedied with sulfur dioxide , which determines a reducente environment caused by its specific avidity absorb oxygen to become sulfur dioxide ( SO. , ), thus neutralizing the action of oxidases .         

radical remedy when just discussed did not seem enough , is achieved by pasteurization temperature of 65-67, , C. The pH of wine is very important , because it directly or indirectly involved in the development of all chemical phenomena wine, involved promoting the activity of the enzyme when its value is between 4 and 7.         

Microbial Diseases         

diseases are alterations and modifications due to the activity of foreign microorganisms to normal wine , strikes some of its components.         According

come from organisms living in an aerobic environment or in an anaerobic environment , ie in the presence or absence of oxygen , diseases are classified under aerobic and anaerobic .         AEROBIC


Among the diseases caused by aerobic microbes , which are generally formed on the surface of the broth , % as caul or veil as they need oxygen for life, we as most important , the call of the flower and the avinagramiento ofwine .         Flower

disease . - It is due to the action of a microorganism called by Pasteur Micoderina vini and Res Saecharomyces Mi- coderma , which develops on the surface of the wine with the production of a veil of pure white or reddish , it seems to view the red wines , with its true color white . In certain wines Jerez and Extremadura development seeks micodérmicas vegetations , which production is attributed particular aromas . Importantly, the veil is quite thick and opaque, offering folds, with bright spots , as this distinguishes it from other disease , which is the avinagramiento .         

aerobic microbe is a loose micoderma wines which preferentially attacks , some alcoholics , at any temperature .         

This disease can be prevented with frequent fillings to keep filled containers .         

Avinagramiento. - This disease is caused by the bacterium gives Micoderma aceti , who lives in markedly aerobic environment , which transforms the alcohol into acetic acid and water. He came to affect the disease appears with a gelatinous veil, which after some time descends to the bottom forming the so-called mother of vinegar , while the surface is renewed.         

have said the total acidity and not fixed, as the latter remains unchanged. When volatile acidity reaches a value of 6 X 1000 wine is called chopping, because in a sense warns volatile acidity is in smell or taste.         

When acidity exceeds the limit above suggests -do , this is the avinagramiento itself.         

Wines are subject to this evil little spirits and sweets. The fixed acidity is know as a strong preventive defense weapon . Indeed, hiperácidos wines are never subject to such a condition .         

he has proven to development of this disease are essential two factors: air and heat. In cold cellars where the temperature does not exceed 8-100 º C , it is rare or rather , the difficult avinagramiento forms , while in those in which the temperature goes around 15 - 20o is rather frequent .         

From this it follows what must be the means to avoid evil. Stuffed frequent and well made ​​and cellar temperature according to the above noted.         

chopped wines - can hardly be remedied . Do not think that the deacidifying or acidity corrective substances resolve much . They are mere palliatives that rarely give effective result. We suggest prefermentation on stillage when possible and the disease is not so advanced that no other resource that allows the preparation of vinegar.         ANAEROBIC


These diseases are caused by enzymes that develop in the lee ofair , that is, almost always within the liquid mass , recognized more easily than for aerobic sediment that forms in the feces , notwithstanding check them also analyzing a sample ofwine. Among these we can cite the disease return or rebound, bittersweet , fat or viscosity and bitterness .         Return

or rebound . - Is wine " rotating " in Italian, and " tourné " in French. The wine is cloudy , blurred , dark or blackened with carbon dioxide production , acetic odor that intensifies nauseating and unpalatable .         

produced by many currently unstudied bacteria , including " Bacillus vinis saprogenesa " and "bacterium torparum " .         

microorganisms attack tartaric acid, cream of tartar and malic acid, decomposing , producing ' significant dose of volatile acids .         

As can be inferred from exposed ' affections saw us bounce back or become undrinkable . Except alcohol does not undergo changes worthy of mention, most other wine components are dispersed or altered .         

This disease has no cure , it can only be prevented by avoiding contact with feces, correctly taking the racking . If the disease is in its early stages , you can try a strong sulphidation , pasteurization or prefermentation with fresh slops .         

Bittersweet : occurs with particular frequency in musts during the tumultuous fermentation in hot countries . The wine is veiled attacked with substances of particular aspect and bittersweet.         

process action develops intervention " bacillus maunitopenum " or attacking manítico ferment glucose and levulose , giving rise to different products.         

bittersweet is prevented by avoiding high temperatures and employing timely appropriate amounts of sulfur dioxide. The only remedy that can give results is to fight evil and declared by stopping fermentation by pasteurization. And the fresh prefermentar stillage .         

or viscosity grease : grease, etiolation or viscosity depends on the presence of special substances formed as a result of the attack of the disease by " Bacillus viscosus " which transforms sugar levulose mucilaginous substances , acetic , lactic ...         

Wines subject to this condition are the sweet whites, especially poor acidity and tannic acid, It follows that particular preservative agents of this disease are alcohol and acidity.         

motivated by the shortage of tannin disease can sometimes correct tanizando wine. First the wine is agitated to break the viscous ahilamientos in it, then add 20-25 gr . tannin hl, followed by a clarification with organic materials .         

same sulfur dioxide dose 5-6 gr. hl neutralizes the vegetative activity of the yeast , whereas the extent of 10 to 30 gr. completely hinders their development. Pasteurization also cut and prefermentation .         

Wines subject to this condition are the sweet whites, especially poor acidity and tannic acid, It follows that particular preservative agents of this disease are alcohol and acidity.         

motivated by the shortage of tannin disease can sometimes correct tanizando wine. First the wine is agitated to break the viscous ahilamientos in it, then add 20-25 gr . tannin hl, followed by a clarification with organic materials .         

same sulfur dioxide dose 5-6 gr. hl neutralizes the vegetative activity of the yeast , whereas the extent of 10 to 30 gr. completely hinders their development. Also pasteurization prefermentation cutting and can be used as remedies to heal the wine.         

Bitterness : is a rare disease due to " amaracrylus bacillus ," which attacks the glycerine forming acrolein, which derive many products such as alcohol , carbon dioxide, volatile acids ...         

ago acquired the wine a bitter taste, form sludge at the bottom of the vessels , but also makes depositing the coloring matter and ethers decrease.         

generally remedied by pasteurisation or with -fermentation , followed by clarification and filtration .         

Some authors recommend the use of hydrogen peroxide or potassium permanganate. Others, however , indicate that the use of such ingredients profoundly alters the chemistry of the wine. We believe this difference is due to the diversity of the wines tested by both.         Fermentation

Tactics . - Primarily distinguish two kinds of lactic acid fermentation and precisely one from glucose, malic acid other . The first is a proper and true alteration, while the second , due to Mierocoecus malolacticus , to be considered as a normal occurrence in all wines , except when it takes character and pathological aspects and then uses pasteurization. Otherwise the destruction of malic acid is prevented by the use of sulfur dioxide.         



checkpoint will be critical to companies that produce bottled has a wealth of sugars such that the microbiological contamination can cause fermentation of these sugars as a result of the internal pressure produced in the bottle, reaching the outbreak of the same .         

In the case of still wines, microbial contamination can lead to turbidity thereof.         

critical limit should be set for each company according to the specifications of its products and its own experience.         

The three preventive actions described in table management are aimed at ensuring the product , ensuring the proper functioning of the process. Especially to prevent microbiological problems , cleaning instructions bottling lines in order to ensure this should be developed.         

affected production should be uncorked and reprocessed . Both the results of the microbiological tests , such as records derived from monitoring the integrity of filters and cleaning circuits must be registered.         

presence of crystals or foreign bodies in wine         

glass and other foreign objects that can appear in wine are usually due to their presence in the bottles before filling or incorporation during it.         

controls receiving bottles and made ​​in the production lines are essential to detect this fault .         Having

suppliers capable of providing bottles in proper condition and properly maintain the production lines , avoiding breaks in mouths , presence of insects, etc . , are measures to eliminate these potential causes of failure.         

is also recommended as a preventive measure , rinsing bottles         

prior to use .         

As always , registration of the controls exercised and maintenance is necessary.         


make the same comments as for the previous point.         


use of various products is common practice in cleaning the holds.         

daily supervision of the production line after cleaning is required in order to ensure the absence of residues in wine.         


handling toxic products is always a risk . As preventive measures , such products must be correctly identified in order not to confuse with any raw or auxiliary material and incorporate into the production process , and must be stored in separate warehouses. By way of example and without being exhaustive , these substances may be lubricants, coolants , etc. . , Who have stayed in containers that are not genuine and are not clearly identified .         

Other preventive actions that help us avoid this failure mode are periodically audit warehouses so as soon as possible misuse of these products is detected and isolated course keep these substances so that they should go ex professed to by them.         Obviously

action to take will be to reject the item affected . Records of the results of inspections and audits should be saved , as well as the impact we have.         

Stabilisation and Clarification         

Abioxyl (vitamin C )         

pale yellow white crystalline powder , odorless , acid, soluble in water and alcohol flavor . It is an antioxidant with immediate action on dissolved oxygen . Protects wine from oxidation by passing it used before bottling.         

legal maximum dose 15 g / hl . In pink and white on red 10-15 5-10 .         Citric acid


Stabilizer on iron salts and coloring matters and so do not rush . 20-50g/hl . The maximum permissible dose is 1 g / l.         Lactic Casein

:         descremada.contiene clotting

10-15% milk protein is a hetero -containing phosphorus and is found in milk as a salt obtained by calcica.Se KHCO3 .         

is a fining agent for white and rosé . It is a preventive and curative treatment of maderization white wines , decreases maderizado taste.         Removing

Fe, removing condensed polyphenols . It preserves color and freshness .         

assets Carbones         

Inert product . Porous structure. Very high adsorbing power . Pore ​​volume 0.8 ml / g 1000m2/g.No inner surface all pores have the same dimensions .         

used for clarification of musts of stained whites, pulp preparation maderiazcion treatment of bentonite, and clarifying agent and removing odors.         

10-50 g / hl for deodorization when authorized .


" Clarifying R" : Gelatin concentrated brown color, organic smell unpleasant . Precipitated tannins and soften wines .         

" clearer VF" pure and very little degraded gelatin . Ensures perfect clarification, acts on polyphenolic tannins avoiding destruction , damaging to fine wines (weak precipitation of tannins)         

dose 1 liter / 15-20 hl
                 potassium ferrocyanide


Preventive action against ferric and cupric break , precipitation of bivalent iron and then trivalent . This desfasad by stringent control.

Gum Arabic         

Natural product . Has protective action opposing the flocculation of unstable colloids. Cupric bankruptcy protection against precipitation and ferrica.Protección dyes . 20 g / hl hl or 1l/15 .         




tannins Features :         

are substances that often differ from each other by their constitution but having a set of common characters like:         

astringent taste         

property to bind to proteins , insolubilizándolas .         

Da Fe salts to blue -black stain .         

exist in a large number of plants in particular chestnut and oak .         

oenological tannin is white yellow, astringent taste in water soluble in whole or in part soluble in alcohol at 95 ° C.The best tannins are extracted from the nut of galles.Los tannins have an important role in :         

color stability         


evolution of wine         

wine structure and body         

tannin water contains 50-70 % tannic acid.         Tannin

ALCOHOL         Taken

Nut galles applies to fine wines from the winemaker who want a better balance and structure.         Tannin

PCE         Contains no

susceptible to communicate smell wine abroad .         

extracted from purified water chestnut tannin , containing 70 % tannic ac. It is used as adjuvant glue (gelatin ) for white and rosé wines , also associated with the action of sulfur dioxide to preserve the wine .

Uvoclaril ( egg albumin )         Clarification soft

preserving the organoleptic qualities. Ensures perfect brilliance and colloidal stabilization. 10-15 g / hl .

VINIPOR (antioxidant for white and rosé )         

wines must submit oxidasica evolution for use .         

preventive and curative treatment of maderization white wines .         

eliminates yellowing         

respects the aromatic qualities         

eliminates bitter character.         

rapid flocculation         

WINE         Tartaric Acid


Acidification of musts and wines fermentación.Esta practice is subject to specific regulations. Acidification is prohibited in all the right to Sugaring growing zones .         Preparation

cement deposits .         

Potassium bitartrate         crystallization Favoriza

tartaric acid for stabilization of wine by the cold .         

alkali carbonates         

120 g / Calcium Carbonate ho : deacidification of musts and wines         

220 g / hl potassium bicarbonate : deacidification of musts and wines .         Decreases acidity

1 g approx.         potassium metabisulfite


intended to sulfur in musts and wines.         Dose according

SO2 = 2g 1g sulfur metabisulphite .         


adapted to sulphite wines and more particularly for SO2 corrections in small containers ( barrels )         

ammonium phosphate         Provides

Ammoniacal nitrogen assimilable by the yeast during fermentation. Ensures total fermentation of the sugars. 30g/hl .         

sulphurous solutions         Allows

ensure accurate sulfur or vintage wines without the inconvenience caused by sulfur dioxide .         

ammonium sulfate         

brings the N2 ammonia assimilated by yeasts . When using ammonium phosphate is incompatible with a number of excessive iron in the wort (bankruptcy ferric phosphate )         



nutritious vitamin- based Preparation of thiamine and ammonium sulfate under the law . Ensures good fermentation kinetics , adding it to the must have a large population of yeast.         

BOTTLING .         

young wines bottling is done at the end of cold stabilization , while wines subjected to a process of barrel aging to bottling proceed following such rearing period .         

filling, bottling or retractions is to fill the bottles to a precise volume of wine , leaving an empty space for the placing of the cap over an air chamber to allow some expansion.         

the bottling process control should be especially hygienic - sanitary conditions in which the transaction takes place , as well the better preservation of the final product .         When

bottle fill level is monitored. If the fill level is small, will be a cavity between the surface of the wine and cork, and that eventually can affect the quality of existence vino.La air chamber inside the bottle has its pros and cons.         One type of bottling

used by the name of bottler depression or vacuum. It is suitable for packaging still wines , which has important conservation CO2 machines.         

is the most widespread bottling by wineries , thanks to its simple construction , ease of cleaning and disinfection , as well as its reasonable price and filling accuracy . The entry of liquid in the bottle , with opening of the filling valve , occurs when the cylinder lifts the valve pressed , opens it and sets with equal pressure . This requires that the bottle is sealed , ie , in good condition . Pressure compensation corresponds to the height of the depression applied in the boiler and fill the bottle. In this case the wine bottle enters the pressure drop .         

24 hours before bottling bottle should be stored standing to allow perfect fitting glass stopper neck without causing leakage, likely to change if the bottles lying down immediately. With the bottle lying was also prevents the development of parasitic fungi cork , which can not be developed in the cork immersed in wine. Development plug smell produced by these fungi were also hampered.         CAPPING


next preceding the bottling operation is plugged. This operation involves the insertion of the stopper into the neck of the bottle , so that it is hermetically closed , leaving an air space between the liquid surface and the plug to cover the first dilation .         

functions fulfilled by the capping are:         Tightness

regarding liquids and gases.         

easy and automatic systems by Placement .         

Easy opening .         

serve as support for tax stamps and mandatory or not information .         

stages of capping operation are:         

1. The compression of the stopper. It should be just in time for intensity and cork can enter the neck of the bottle , without breaking or losing resilience .         

2 . The penetration of the stopper. It is done by a piston compression releases and puts it in the neck. The stroke must be adjusted perfectly for the cap is not too off or too deep , but just on the surface of the neck .         

To ensure tightness of the stopper, the cork should be compressed to 1/ 4 of the diameter .         

corks require prior preparation, for hygienic reasons and to improve the properties of cork to be wet. To this are rinsed with water or steam sterilization .         

elements that are part of the corking are:         

compression jaws .         Plunger or piston


centering cone , whose profile fits the neck .         

centering system of the bottle, it can be star or guides .         

Support and compression spring, to accommodate different heights of bottles.         

One of the main problems is plugging the overpressure , which can be caused by :         

air compression at the time of closing the bottle .         

liquid expansion with increasing temperature .         Following this

overpressure leak wine is produced , which will hinder their subsequent conservation and decrease its quality.         

are multiple factors involved in the occurrence of this phenomenon ranging from the quality and size of the cork, the neck of the bottle, corking itself to the particular conditions of operation ( fill level plugs preparation temperatures ... )         To avoid this pressure

filling is performed under an atmosphere of carbon . When replacing the camera can not be CO2 overpressure , because the carbon is soluble in wine.         

AGING IN BOTTLE .         

This operation will only be practiced in wines under the names " reserve" and " Gran Reserva " . The period of bottle aging will vary according to the provisions of Regulation Regulatory Board.         Part

wine to barrel aging after bottling and capping , is subjected to a process of aging in the bottle . The qualitative improvement of a red wine after bottle aging is a fact now confirmed . The wine bottle indeed undergoes a series of changes that complete their tune . It is true that the phenomena that occur in the bottle depend essentially on the low potential that is characteristic of her reduced oxide , and thus the tertiary aromas bottle favors are linked precisely to the survival of a reducing environment , sometimes very intense, that is precisely what is established .         

important conservation level of said reducing the wine in the bottle. In this sense there is absolutely neglecting the oxidizing effect of the amount of oxygen present in the headspace of the bottle full and sufficient to interfere with the oxidation of the wine .         

aging warehouses must be designed so that the light does not shine directly on the bottles of wine and having a negative effect on your normal movement . Although the wine is bottled in dark glass , it is best to keep it in local semi - dark .         

This operation proceeds to introduce the bottles horizontally in stainless steel cages , where they shall rest in appropriate conditions of temperature and humidity for the duration of the aging period .         

Bottles should be arranged in such a position that the corks are always in contact with the wine and the air chamber is approximately in the center of the bottle.         

storage temperature will be maintained by a climatizadora install the most appropriate level for wine . The house temperature aging will be between 12-15 º C. Since the annual temperature fluctuations may be significant, it is important to periodically check the temperature and humidity of the ship.         Low temperatures can

cause precipitation of tartar in wine which are not stable with respect to the tartrates at that temperature . Sometimes these temperatures cause precipitation of coloring matter .         

CAPPED .         Once

ended in the young wine bottling and aging period in the reserves or gran reserva wine , we proceed to the capped bottle .         

capped is an operation that covers various needs in the final product :         

Ensure cleanliness of the cap and the neck .         Serve

support the tax stamp .         Ensure no fraudulent

plugged.         Allowing for some customization

capping .         

Of course , it must be easy to open.         

capsule material used is tin . The capping is done automatically in the own bottling line and proceeds as follows :         

1. Distribution , which is done mechanically, pneumatically by compressed air.         

2 . Retraction , in which the material to the neck of the bottle is secured by the application of heat .         

LABELING .         

Labeling is the final operation should be performed shortly before the release of the product market, because otherwise you end up spoiling . In the bottle are placed two types of tags : front label and back - label. The first is placed on the front label , back label and shall be assigned by the Regulatory Board , which uses it as a control system .         

label all wines protected by the Designation of Origin Ribera del Arlanza figure logo of the Regulatory Council of the Denomination . This practice is mandatory in all kinds of wines .

When wines are destined for export , in addition to the label and back label , often include other data regarding the composition of the product , or warnings. In many cases such data are required by the law of the country where the product is exported.         There

labeling standards set by the Ministry of Agriculture of Castilla y León and must be followed by the PDO .         

labeling is done automatically. The bottles go in a carousel conducted by guides. On the other hand , another carousel rotating blades causes labels rub against a cylinder holder - tail, powered by a pump. Then they are collected by the labeling cylinder , which by the subject forceps and deposited against the body of the bottle .

PACKAGING .         

characteristics of what we consider the ideal package are :         

Must contain the product from producer to consumer.         

Protect food from the environment.         

Provide information to those handling and using the product.         

provide an attractive appearance to help sell product and promotional information serve .         

Protect cylinders from physical damage.         

Submit a convenient way that is easily handled by the dealer and the consumer.         

packaging bottles are performed manually , as it exits the labeled bottles . The boxes can accommodate six bottles each. The boxes are purchased and formed manually in the cellar . Inside, the cylinders shall be separated from each other by means of strips of cardboard coated on the bottle , to prevent it being knocked over during dispensing .         

Once packaged the bottles are sealed with tape manually. These tapes are printed with the logo of the Regulatory Council.


Once the manufacturing process, the products I go to store finished product. The store is a place specifically designed for this use, and is heated by an air conditioning system , which ensures that the store always remain at a temperature between 12 -14 ° C and lower temperatures , close to 5 ° C , causing precipitation of tartrates and coloring matter. Conversely higher temperatures may cause expansion of the wine inside the bottle causing the outside of the product discharge .         

During storage the product should remain palletized to keep isolated from soil .         

Before directing the product to market , it should be prepared for transportation by placing a transparent PVC stretch film that is placed manually.         

During transport to distribution centers , should take special care with the high temperatures , so that in warm periods will seek to travel at night or even in insulated vehicles.         

Some of the factors taken into account when assessing the conservation of the product are the position of the bottle (must be horizontally to facilitate contact with the cork ) , its proximity to exhibitors foci , which would be a significant increase in temperature and nothing beneficial consequences so caused .         


Once the manufacturing process, the products I go to store finished product. The store is a place specifically designed for this use, and is heated by an air conditioning system , which ensures that the store always remain at a temperature between 12 -14 ° C and lower temperatures , close to 5 ° C , causing precipitation of tartrates and coloring matter. Conversely higher temperatures may cause expansion of the wine inside the bottle causing the outside of the product discharge .         

During storage the product should remain palletized to keep isolated from soil .         

Before directing the product to market , it should be prepared for transportation by placing a transparent PVC stretch film that is placed manually.         

During transport to distribution centers , should take special care with the high temperatures , so that in warm periods will seek to travel at night or even in insulated vehicles.         

Some of the factors taken into account when assessing the conservation of the product are the position of the bottle (must be horizontally to facilitate contact with the cork ) , its proximity to exhibitors foci , which would be a significant increase in temperature and nothing beneficial consequences so caused .         

Determination of Volatile Acidity Real         

( According to Garcia - Tena method)         

volatile acid is the acid group of the acetic series are in the wine, the most important being the quantitatively (90-95% ) Acetic acid (CH3 -COOH ) . It should include lactic acid , succinic or Sorbic , draggable steam , nor the carbon dioxide gas and sulfur (SO2 )         

sensory level is of the order of 0.6 g / l acetic acid and 0.1 g / l to the ethyl acetate. The smell of "crushed" is due to Acetic Acid Ethyl Acetate and mainly .         

wine volatile acidity is about 0.3 g / liter expressed as acetic acid , even in young wines is less than the old because the fermentation process is more advanced in the latter.         

volatile acids are formed in the following processes:         

- alcoholic fermentation produced by Saccharomyces cerevisiae , which is a side product from acetaldehyde according Neuberg (approx. 150-300 mg / l         

2CH3 -CHO + H2O CH3 -CH2- OH + CH3- COOH

In malolactic fermentation , produced by facultative anaerobic bacteria from the degradation of citric acid, malic acid and pentose ( approx. 100-200 mg / l)         

The attack by pathogenic bacteria contituyentes wine elements such as reducing sugars , glycerol and tartaric acid .         

The attack by pathogenic bacteria wine constituents such as reducing sugars , Tartaric Acid and Glycerin .         In

acetic fermentation , ie the oxidation of ethanol by the bacterium Acetobacter aceti . To avoid this type of fermentation would need to have an inert nitrogen atmosphere.         

CH3- CH2OH + O2 CH3- COOH + H2O         

fermentation involves:         Decreased

alcoholic .         Increased

volatile acidity.         Decreased


Reduced efficacy of sulphurous gas. The role of sulfur dioxide gas is mainly oxidations avoid contact with air. It is also used for its antiseptic, removing bacteria that may harm the fermentation         

purposes of the determination of the volatile acidity are :         

See if your levels are within the legal limit.         Types of wine

          Volatile acidity         

( in g / l acetic acid )         White and pink

        < 1         Reds

        < 1.2         Sparkling

        < 0.8         

Sparkling wines (Cava )
        < 0.65         

          < 0.9

development as long as the storage of wine.         

Check the health of the wine. A high amount of volatile acids in wine would be indicative of a significant presence of potentially pathogenic bacteria ) .         

basis of the method         

Volatile acidity is determined by the separation of volatile acid by distillation . Dan interference Carbon Dioxide (CO2 ) , ( which is removed by vacuum mixing ) Sulphur free gas and combined Sorbic Acid , Lactic Acid and Succinic Acid also pass into the distillate.         

Material and reagents:         

Microdestilador or volatímetro comprising: spherical flask , connecting bridge and coolant.         

Pipette 11 ml . Capacity of 5.1 ml test tube and 3.2 ml , burette and conical flask .         

171327 Phenolphthalein solution 1 %         

183397 Sodium Hydroxide 0.02 mol / l ( 0.02N )         


Using a pipette 11 ml of wine , devoid of CO2 are measured and poured into the flask ball , the latter being clean inside and dry on the outside . The flask is adjusted to the distillation apparatus . Cooling the specimen below 5.1 ml where the first portions of the distillate is collected is placed. Then the cooling water inlet and will Bunsen burner , proceeding to the distillation of wine 11ml will light. When the liquid reaches the top line of the specimen is removed and immediately replaced with 3.2 ml of the specimen . Once the liquid reaches the top tazo of this second specimen, the Bunsen burner is turned off and terminated distillation         


distillate collected in 5.1 ml of the specimen is discarded and collected in 3.2 ml beaker is poured into an Erlenmeyer flask or beaker and titrated with sodium hydroxide 0.02 mol / in the presence of a few drops of phenolphthalein 1% solution until a faint pink color. It notes the spent volume and is assigned as N.         

Calculation and expression of results         The number of spent

ml N to assess fluid specimen of 3.2 ml will give the value of the volatile acidity according to the formula : it

volatile acidity , expressed in g / l acetic acid = 0.366 N *         

Results obtained in the evaluation of wine ARLANZA         

volume of NaOH 0.02 mol / l spent = 2 ml First Rating         Second assessment

2 ml         

volatile acidity = 2 * 0.366 = 0.732 g / l acetic acid         

= 0.732 mg / l acetic acid         

*** Located within legal limits ***         




Total Acidity Determination

The total acidity of the wine is considered to be the sum of the titratable acids when wine leads to pH = 7 by addition of an alkaline liquor valued. Carbonic acid and the free and bound sulfur dioxide are not considered included in the total acidity .         Frequently

acids in wine are tartaric, malic and lactic . The Tartaric and Malic Acid comes from grapes and lactic comes from malolactic fermentation of wines. Other minor acids present in wine are citric acid, Citromalico , acetic , gluconic , glucuronic , glycolic , propionic , pyruvic , galacturonic , afumarico , ascorbic, succinic , musician , oxalic , boric , and phosphoric .         

Carbon dioxide (CO2 ) and Sulfur Gas not included in the total acidity . Determination of reducing sugars of the must, allows us to set the index of maturity of the grape ( azúcares7acidez ) as during ripening the sugar content increases and decreases acids .         

total acid values ​​of a wine are lower than those of the must from which , as tartaric acid precipitated as potassium hydrogen tartrate and calcium tartrate . This precipitation is caused by the decrease in solubility by increasing the percentage of alcohol and reduce the temperature ( cold treatment ) , but also is affected by the presence of colloids and suspended particles .         

years overripe get used to make corrections to the acidity of the must with Tartaric Acid , adding twice as much as you want to increase due to the decrease caused by rainfall throughout the development process
                 Material and reagents


200 ml Erlenmeyer flask .         

Pipette 10 ml.         Burette


bromothymol blue solution 0.4 %         

Phenolphthalein Solution 1 %         Sodium hydroxide

0.1 mol / l         Sodium hydroxide

1 mol / l         

Buffer Solution pH 7.0 + / - 0.02 ( 20) ST         


Carbon Dioxide Removal of the samples to be present for any of the following methods: vacuum pump , ultrasound, by stripping with inert gas ( N2 or He2 ) or agitation.         

In an Erlenmeyer flask add 10 ml of sample, 30 ml of distilled water and 4 drops of indicator solution. Using a burette, add slowly and constantly stirring, sodium hydroxide molarity appropriate , depending on the type of sample to be analyzed , to the color change of the pH indicator .         

valuation is performed in the presence of bromothymol blue ( for musts and wines ) or phenolphthalein ( for vinegar ) as indicators of the final valuation point by comparing a color pattern ( pH 7 buffer solution and indicator only bromothymol blue ) . You can also make the assessment determining the endpoint potentiometrically .         


Product         Wine

        > 4.5 g / l expressed as tartaric acid         Sparkling wine

        > 5.35 g / l expressed as tartaric acid         

sparkling wine ( cava)
        > 5.50 g / l expressed as tartaric acid         Vinegar for human consumption

        > 50 g / l expressed as acetic acid         Vinegar

          > 80-110 g / l expressed as acetic acid

Calculation and expression of results         

total acidity in wines and musts is expressed in g / l of tartaric acid and vinegar in the case of g / l of acetic acid . The result is expressed to two decimal places , the second decimal ending in 0 or 5.         

Total acidity (wines and musts ) , expr . G / L of tartaric acid V x 0.75         


Results obtained in the laboratory .         

V = volume in ml of sodium hydroxide 0.1 mol / l         

To prepare the 0.1 N sodium hydroxide and 4 grams weighed once enrasamos dissolved in distilled water to 1 liter.         

V1 = 8.2 ml of 0.1 N NaOH         

Total acidity of sample = 8.2 x 0.75 = 6.15 grams of tartaric acid in 1 liter         

V2 = 8.2 ml of 0.1 N NaOH         

Total acidity of sample = 8.2 x 0.75 = 6.15 grams of tartaric acid in 1 liter         

*** The test sample is within the law ***         


The ash content is a wine, all the products of incineration of the evaporation residue in a known volume of wine , constructed such that they can obtain all cations (other than ammonia) in the form of carbonate and other mineral salts anhydrous.         

His determination is used in certain oenological formulas designed to detect acidión of water, sugar or header . In general, wines from unripe grapes , musts or watery sugary or undrained juice or white wine you about the reds have a lower ash content .         

ash determination is ordinarily carried out at 500-550 ° C. The calcining temperature must not exceed 550 ° C to avoid loss of chlorides . During calcination cations carbonates become anhydrous or other mineral salts . The ammonium ion is volatilized . In general , the ash content is about 10 % of the sugar -free extract .         Materials and apparatus


adjustable electric oven         

water bath and sand bath         

capsule 70 mm in diameter and 25 mm height.         

Procedure         Bumping

20 ml of wine in a tared balance that appreciates in 1/10 mg . Evaporate carefully in a water bath , after evaporation to syrupy consistency, continue heating on a sand bath sparingly and for half an hour . It is desirable to assist evaporation infrared application to carbonization . When no more fumes are evolved transfer dish to oven to 525 ° C. + / - 25 º C with continuous aeration.         

After 5 minutes of complete carbonization , remove the dish from the oven , allow to cool and add 5 ml of water are evaporated in a water bath , and bring back to the oven to 525 º C.         

combustion of carbonaceous parties is not achieved within 15 minutes, restart the operation of addition of water evaporation and recalcination .         

the case of a wine rich in sugars, is recommended to add a few drops of pure vegetable oil to the extract before roasting to prevent overflow of the mass of content. The duration of the first carbonization must be in this case 15 minutes.         

After cooling in the desiccator capsule and ash weighed.         

Calculations         Calculate

ash content in g / l

Legal Limit *** 2.06 **** 7.08 to g / l


** Changes **         

have not used the platinum dish for lacking her instead have used a porcelain . Neither could we use infrared light.         

Instead of taking a sample of 20 ml we used a sample of 25 ml.         

Results obtained in the laboratory         

weighed empty capsule = 110.1943 grams         Capsule

ash = 110.2934 grams         

Difference = 0.0991 grams in 25 ml ========== 3,964 grams in a liter         


**** Located within the law ****


Determination of alkalinity of the ash         

total alkalinity of ash is defined as the sum of cations , different from ammonium , organic acids combined with the wine .         

valuation is based on the volumetric sulfuric acid, valuing return after dissolving it in hot ashes and using methyl orange as indicator.

Equipment and supplies         

bath water         

Pipette 10 ml         Glass rod


rating         Reagents


Sulfuric Acid 0.05 mol / l ( 0.1 N )         

Methyl Orange solution 0.1 %         

Sodium Hydroxide 0.1 mol / l ( 0.1 N )         

Procedure         Add to

and bottom ash , Sulphuric Acid 10 ml 0.05 mol / l Place the dish into a bath of boiling water for fifteen minutes repeatedly rubbing the bottom of the dish with a glass rod to activate the solution of hard particles dissolve . Then add two drops of Methyl Orange solution 0.1 % and titrate the excess sulfuric acid with sodium hydroxide 0.1 mol / l , until the indicator turns yellow.         

Calculations         Calculate

ash alkalinity expressed in meq / l or g / l of potassium carbonate .         

alkalinity of ash = 5 (10 - V ) meq / l         

alkalinity of ash = 0.345 (10 - V ) g / l of potassium carbonate .         

V = volume in ml 0.1 N sodium hydroxide used         Preparation of reagents

        0.1N NaOH

====== 0.4 grams in 100 ml         

H2SO4 0.1 N ====== 0.27 ml of concentrated and distilled water to 100         

Results obtained in the laboratory         Volume of NaOH used

====== 3.0 ml         

Volume2 of 3.2 ml NaOH used ======         

alkalinity of ash in the first experiment = 0.345 (10 - 3.0) = 2.415 g / l         

alkalinity of ash in the second experiment = 0.345 (10 - 3.2) = 2.346 g / l         

average Alkalinity = 2.380 g / l of potassium carbonate .         Determination

methanol ( chromotropic acid method )

Principle         Oxidation

methyl alcohol to formaldehyde by potassium permanganate in the presence of phosphoric acid and spectrophotometric measurement of the color reaction of formaldehyde with chromotropic acid . Formaldehyde specified purple coloring .         

Equipment and supplies         

flasks of 50 ml         

regulated water bath 60-75 ° C         

Spectrophotometer set at 575 nm reading .         

ball long neck flask , 500 ml and cooling with extension         Reagents



ortho - Phosphoric acid 85 %         

Sulfuric Acid 96 %         Methanol

        Potassium permanganate

        Sodium bisulfite

dry         Sodium sulfite anhydrous



dilute or adjust the sample to a total alcohol concentration of 5-6 % by volume. Using 50 ml sample , a simple distillation to distill , collecting 40 ml of distillate in an ice bath . Dilute to 50 ml with water         

Pipette 2 ml of potassium permanganate solution in a volumetric flask of 50 cooling in an ice bath , add 1 ml of dilute and cold specimen and 30 minutes in an ice bath . Washout with Sodium disulphite and add 1 ml of acid solution Chromotropic . Add slowly with stirring and ice bath 15 minutes by hot water bath (60-75 ) . Cool, add enough water to bring approximately 50 ml mark , mix and dilute to volume with water at room temperature. Read absorbance at 575 nm using reagent blank as 5.5% ethanol treated similarly as described above. Trying pattern Methanol solution containing 0.025 % by volume of methanol , 5.5% Ethanol simultaneously in the same form , and read the absorbance (the temperature of the standard and the sample must not differ by more than 1 ° C since the temperature affects the color intensity ) .         

indicates the original dry NaHSO3 . Sodium bisulfite as as formula exists only in aqueous solution and therefore it should be understood Sodium disulphite Na2S2O5 dry formula .         


Calculate the methanol content in percentage.         

Methanol = 0.025 (A / A ¨ ) x F         

A = Absorbance of Sample         

' = Absorbance of the standard solution of methanol .         

F = dilution factor of the sample.

** Remarks **         

If the color of the sample is too strong , dilute with reagent blank . Do not thin more than three times that the ratio of chromotropic acid to methanol is reduced too .         

legality range 36 --- 350 mg / l         

calculator solutions         

3N = 1M orthophosphoric acid and 17 ml to 250 ml with distilled water         Dissolution

sulfuric and oxalic + 14 ml of sulfuric and oxalic 15.75 g to 250 ml         

Solution 2.6335 g of potassium permanganate to 50 ml of distilled water .         

Results obtained in the laboratory         

Sample Absorbance 0.045         Absorbance 0.040


Methanol = 0.025 ( 0.045/0.040 ) 0.5         

Methanol = 0.0140 g / 100cc ==== 140 mg / l

**** This **** within the law         Determination of total

Tartaric acid.         

Principle         Addition

wine levorotatory tartaric acid which, in conjunction with the wine dextrorotatory tartaric acid solution and in the presence of calcium , formed under certain insoluble calcium racemate .         The method adopted

precipitation conditions are determined calcium racemate , setting the solubility of calcium tartrate counterclockwise (also form) and calcium racemate function of pH and calcium ions wealth . With this data set is convenient to precipitate the racemate and calcium tartrate is solubilized pH counterclockwise .         

tartrate is relatively resistant to both respiratory oxidation which takes place in the grapes and to bacterial action in the list, and hence it represents a significant part of the acid fraction of both : in general , half or more of the total acidity of musts and wines is due to tartaric acid and its acid salts . Tartrates content expressed as tartaric acid, varies between 0.2 and 0.8% .         Reagents


Hydrochloric Acid 35%         EDTA


Magnesium Oxide         

Eriochrome Black T         Sodium Chloride


Sodium Hydroxide 1 mol / l         

buffer solution pH 9 with ammonium chloride or prepare , Ammonia 25 % and water         Buffer solution pH 9.0

+ -0.02 , prepared by mixing 54 g of ammonium chloride , 350 ml of 25 % ammonia , and the solution with water to one liter .         

indicator Eriochrome Black T. : Mix 1 g of Eriochrome Black T with 100 g of sodium chloride .         Magnesium

0.05M solution . Dissolve 2.25 g of Magnesium Oxide . Make the required amount of solution in dilute Hydrochloric Acid 10% and then make up to one liter .         

EDTA : Dissolve 18.61g of Ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid disodium salt 2 - hydrate in 1 liter of water .         

Hydrochloric acid diluted 1 /5 ( V / V ) with 35 % water         

Sodium Hydroxide 1 mol / l         


Dissolve in 10 ml of dilute hydrochloric acid racemate precipitate collected on the filter crucible. Wash the crucible with 50 ml of water. Add a volume of Sodium Hydroxide 1 mol / l sufficient to neutralize the solution ( about 20-22 ml ) . Then add 5 ml Buffer pH = 9.5ml of 0.05 M magnesium salt solution and 50 mg of Eriochrome Black T indicator . Titrate with 0.05M EDTA         


tartaric acid in g / l of wine = ( v -5 ) 3.75         

tartaric acid in g / l potassium bitartrate = ( V -5 ) 4.70         

V = volume in ml of 0.05 M EDTA acid         

Results obtained in the laboratory         

V1 = 5.1 ml         

V2 = 5.1 ml         Potassium bitartrate

= ( 5.1-5 ) 4.70 = 0.47 g / l of wine         

** Found within legal limits **         Determination

CALCIUM ( complexometric method)


rating on complexometric calcium nitrate solution or hydrochloric ashes wine .         

Equipment and supplies         

1000ml Erlenmeyer flasks         

100 ml Erlenmeyer flasks         


Hydrochloric acid 0.25 mol / l         EDTA


Calcium Chloride         Sodium Chloride

        Sodium hydroxide


Procedure         Evaporate to dryness in

boiling water bath 50 ml of wine placed in capsules preferably platinum . Incinerate the residue .         

dissolve the ash in 8 ml of 0.25 M hydrochloric acid , lead to a 50 ml volumetric flask , washed several times with water by pouring the capsule into the flask. Mark and mix , take 20 ml of ash solution and heat to boiling in a 100 ml Erlenmeyer flask . Allow to cool and then adding 0.5 ml of sodium hydroxide solution 40% , 10 ml of EDTA and 100 mg of Calcon indicator .         

If the color of the mixture is red -winy add EDTA in relatively large excess , which masks the turning point .         Rate

excess EDTA. The Calcon indicator will turn blue violet to red- wine- at the end of the reaction.         

Calculations         Calculate

calcium content and Ca ions in meq / l as ionesCa expresdos in g / l         Calcium

= (10 - v ) x 5 meq / l of Ca ion         Calcium

= (10 - v ) × 0.1 g / l of Ca ion         Limits

0030-0112 g / liter as BOE         

Results obtained in the laboratory         

V = volume in ml of 0.05M calcium chloride         

V1 = 9.2 ml         

V2 = 9.3 ml         


( 10-9.2 ) x 0.1 = 0.08 g / l Calcium         

( 10-9.3 ) x 0.1 = 0.07 g / l Calcium         

********** It is within the law ***********






        alcoholic strength

Title ( with hydrometer )         


title alcoholic strength equals the number of liters of ethyl alcohol had in 100 l of wine, both volumes being measured at 20 ° , and is expressed in alcoholic strength by volume with an accuracy of 0.1 ° C.         

determined by simple distillation of a liquid and measure alkalized alcoholic wines with dumbbell .         

Materials         Distillation apparatus


wines or apparatus aerometry         




simple distillation is performed in the heavy wine distillate is introduced considering that the stem is graduated in apparent alcoholic strength .         

Results obtained in the laboratory         

alcohómetro 12.5 °         

wine weighs 12 º         

*** In the event that the measure does not perform at 20 tables which are dependent on temperature measurement adds or alcoholic correction is subtracted , as the perform our measurements at 20 does lack the use of correction tables .

Another method is to use an ebulliometer .

        Total dry extract



The total dry matter or total solids content is the set of all substances under certain physical conditions , do not volatilize . These physical conditions must be set so that the components of this extract substances suffer minimum disturbance .         The total solids

indirectly calculated by knowing the density of " alcoholic residue " , which is wine whose alcohol has evaporated and then re-established the initial volume by adding water .         

Procedure         Bringing

distillation residue unneutralized the flask where wine is measured with several portions of water , and filled to volume with these , the flask with the residue from the distillation at the same temperature up to volume to which the wine . Mix well and bring to a specimen density determination.         


Calculate the dry extract expressed in g / l from the density of the alcoholic residue using the table ..         

Determine the density of the residue alcoholic         Calculate the density

20/20 Non-Alcoholic residue according to formula Tabarie         

dr = dv - da + 1         

dr : density 20/20 Non-Alcoholic residue         

dv : density of wine at 20         

da : hydroalcoholic mixture density of the same strength as the wine         

Results obtained in the laboratory         

dr = 1.03 to 0.986 + 1 = 1.044         

per table dry matter in g / l is 114.2         Observations


The dry extract is expressed by the amount of sucrose dissolved in water to 1l. Gives a solution of the same density as the alcoholic residue . On the table is the equivalence of this density expressed as sucrose .         


Determination of Relative Density and specific         



density is the ratio of the mass of a certain volume of wine in this volume. It is expressed in g per ml and its symbol is D20 .         

relative density is the ratio of the density of the wine in the water . Its symbol is d         

two quantities are measured at 20 ° .         







Wash and rinse the pycnometer with ethyl alcohol and then dry thoroughly with ether and weigh. Fill with distilled water at 20 ° , make up , dry and weigh .         

Repeat with wine.         Results obtained in the laboratory



empty pycnometer Weight: 17.2308 g (mean)
                 pycnometer with water

Weight : 46.2248 g (mean)         

Pic.vacio Volume = - = 29.0523 cm3 Pic.agua         

H2O Density (20 º)         

empty pycnometer Weight: 17.2308 (mean)
                 pycnometer with wine

Weight : 46.0515 g (mean)         

Volume: 29.0523 cm3         Density = 0.992 g/cm3


calculator relative density at 20         

d ( 20) = P " -P         

P' -P         

P : weight in g of the empty pycnometer         

P ' : g weight of pycnometer with water at 20         

P " g weight of pycnometer with wine at 20         

d ( 20) = 0.994 g/cm3         

Calculating the density at 20 °         

D ( 20 ° ) = d ( 20) - c .         


the value of c is in the table         

4.5 Observations         

wine containing noticeable amount of carbon dioxide will be removed as much as possible a volume of 250ml shaking the flask 1000ml .         

If wine is cloudy , it was filtered.         

If the cloud is yeast suspension , the above filtration brighten not being appropriate in this case decant for 3-4 days.         



Determination of Sulphur dioxide (Paul method)         

Principle:         Liberation

sulfur "free" wine acidification drag by airstream neutral oxidation by bubbling hydrogen peroxide and sodium hydroxide titration with sulfuric acid formed . Boil gently release the combined sulfur remaining in the wine after removal of free sulfur and similar treatment in the determination of "free" sulfur . The total sulfur is the sum of free sulfur and sulfur combined . Can be determined by acidifying and heating the wine and proceeding as in the previous two cases.         

Equipment and supplies :         

flask of 100 ml or 250 ml         Tube

barbotador hollow ball provided on one end with 20 holes 0.2 mm in diameter around the maximum horizontal circle .         

to condense refrigerant vapors and miss gas in travel insurance .         

bottle with water and plug, with the tube connecting the vacuum to barbotador and other submerged in water to accuse vacuum intensity by depression of the water column inside the tube tube depression should be between 20-30 cm         

adjustable bath water         Reagents

        ortho- phosphoric acid



Methylene Blue         Ethanol

        Hydrogen Peroxide 30 %

        Methyl Red


Sodium Hydroxide         Procedure


Analysis of free sulfur dioxide . In 100 l flask apparatus put 10 ml of wine add 5 ml of 25 % phosphoric acid thereupon placing the flask in place. If wealth is small SO2 wine , 250 ml flask is used and 20-25 ml of wine are made .         

Immerse the flask in a water bath placed a10 C 2-3 ml of hydrogen per- oxide in 0.3 volumes and two drops of the indicator reagent in the barbotador and neutralize the hydrogen peroxide with 0.01 N Sodium Hydroxide         Adapt

barbotadro the unit and do the air for 12-15 barbotar minutos.Arrastrar free sulfur dioxide and then oxidized to H2SO4. Remove from barbotador and evaluate the acid formed with sodium hydroxide solution 0.01 N.         

total sulfur dioxide . Can be determined by adding free plus combined sulfur dioxide sulfur dioxide , but can also be determined direcrtamente , acted from the beginning with airflow and heat .         

calculations: sulfur free         Calculate

expressed sulfur dioxide content and mh / l to the nearest 10 mg / l         Sulphur dioxide

x V = 32 mg / l         

Results obtained in the laboratory :         

spent 0.01 N NaOH volume in ml = 0.3 ml         

spent Volume 2 0.01 N NaOH in 0.3 ml = ml         Sulphur dioxide

= 32 x 0.3 = 25.6 mg / l
                 Royalty ******

maximum allowed by law is 15.6 to 41.20 mg / l *****
                 Determination of Total Sulfur

        Calculations of total sulfur


Limit maximum 200 mg / l         

        Total Sulfur

x V = 32         

V = volume of NaOH = 2.5 ml         Total Sulfur

Result = 32 x 2.5 = 80 mg / l         

*** is within the allowable limits ***




        Phosphate Determination


Principle:         Oxidation

wine, evaporation and incineration , precipitation of phosphoric acid in nitric acid ammonium phosphomolybdate state . This salt is dissolved by the action of an excess of 0.5 N sodium hydroxide in the presence of formaldehyde . Titration of the excess sodium hydroxide by 0.5 N hydrochloric acid in the presence of phenolphthalein .         

Equipment and supplies         

silica capsule diameter of 70 mm         Sand bath

        Muffle furnace

        500 ml Erlenmeyer


beakers and volumetric elements .         Magnetic stirrer


Reagents:         0.5 M HCl

        Nitric acid


Water         Ammonium molybdate hydrate

4         Ammonium Nitrate


phenolphthalein 1% solution         Formaldehyde


0.5 M Sodium Hydroxide         


Evaporate to dryness 100 ml of wine in quartz capsule in successive additions. Then add 4 ml of nitric acid and heat gradually in the sand bath and then in the muffle furnace         Add to ashes

2 ml of nitric acid and evaporate to dryness in the water bath for the silica insoluble . Add 10 ml of 25% nitric acid , remove and drag         


a filter ashes , filter and wash the capsule with 5 ml of the same acid and then with 20-30 ml of water . Collect the filtrate into a 500 ml Erlenmeyer flask , add 25 ml of solution of ammonium nitrate and 340 g per liter shake .         

once Then add 80 ml of ammonium molybdate solution 3% mechanically stirring for 12 minutes at 200 strokes per minute . Decant and filter paper. Then washing the precipitate with 75 ml of washing liquid twice. Each wash should not last more than 10 minutes . Wash with water 8 times more .         

Place the filter and precipitate in a beaker with 50 ml of 0.5 M sodium hydroxide Add 12.5 ml of 36.5 % formaldehyde neutralized stabilized with methanol in the presence of Phenolphthalein solution 1% to dissolve the precipitate phosphomolybdate . Drain the filter and spread on the wall of the vessel above the liquid in the solution . Titrate the excess sodium hydroxide with 0.5 M hydrochloric acid until discoloration Fenolftaleina , having dipped the filter at the end again .         

calculations:         Calculate

phosphate content expressed in meq g phosphoric acid or P2O5 per liter of wine .         

Phosphates = 0.01365 (50 - V ) of P2O5 per liter of wine         

V = volume of 0.5 N HCl in ml         

Give the results to the nearest 0.01 g / l         

Results obtained in the laboratory .         

0.5 V = 20.9 ml HCl         

Phosphates = 0.01365 ( 50-20.9 ) = 0.397 g / l P2O5         

legal limits *** 0073-0527 g / l ***         

wine is within the limits authorized



The color of wine is determined by transparency as perceived by sight, but by an independent method of personal assessment , using methods selected espectrofotométric tristimulus ordered Hardy , based on the system of the Commission Internationale de l ' Echairege (C: I: E :) with respect to the light produced by a cloudy sky.         

Devices :         

spectrophotometer for measuring the visible spectrum. The transmittance values ​​corresponding to the same sample should not exceed 0.0005 acknowledge differences and when the scale of the apparatus is a graduate of transmittance values ​​multiplied by 100 , there should be greater than 0.5 differences.         

quartz cuvettes or glass of maximum refractive index of 1.5 , and inner parallel wall thickness b which is expressed in centimeters and with an approach of 0.002b .


If wine is not clean centrifuge previamente.Eliminar carbon dioxide, if necessary, by stirring with partial vacuum .         

measure directly the spectrophotometer transmittances wine at four wavelengths = 625 550.495 445 nm using the cuvette suitable thickness as color intensity of wine.         

calculations:         Using water as

reference liquid water.         

Calculate the coordinates ( x , Y)         

X. ... Y .         

X = X + Y + Z Y = X + Y + Z         

X = 0.42T625 0.35T550 + + T445 0.21         

0.20T625 + Y = 0.63 +0.17 T550 T495         

Z = 0.24 + 0.94 T495 T445         The tristimulus values ​​

** X , Y, Z express the proportions of red , green and blue colors that give color by mixing wine.         Relative brightness

by color.         

value and expressed as a percentage (where the black and colorless = 0 and y = 100)         

Results obtained in the laboratory .         

T625 = 14.59         

T550 = 0.0984         

T495 = 0.1232         

T445 = 0.2163         

X = 6.20         


Z = 0.23         

Color wines ( applicable to red and rosé wines )         


The color intensity is measured by the sum of the absorbances of the wine for a thickness of 1 cm corresponding to the minimum wavelength of absorbance ( 420 nm ) of red wine .         

hue angle formed by the axis of wavelengths the chord joining the points of the spectrophotometric curve representative of corresponding to the wavelengths 420 and 520 nm absorbance is expressed .         


except in color wavelengths used are 420 nm and 520 nm.         


Calculate the color intensity and hue .         

color intensity :         

I = ( A420 + A520 ) (1 / b )         

B is the thickness of the cuvette         

Tone: The tone for the cuy tangent angle measured is equal to the difference of the numerical value of the two absrobancias A520 - A420 . .         Observations


this method but the color intensity and hue of the color is determined , which are chromatic characteristics convencionales.Por its speed and simplicity, is very practical for monitoring of the pigments during their " parenting " or aging .         

Results obtained in the laboratory .         

A420 = 2,617         

A520 = 3,188         

dye intensity :         

I = ( A420 + A520 ) (1 / b )         

I = 5.8055         


A520- A420 = 0.5715


ORUJOS .         

marc are solid products obtained from grape pressing operation . Marc agree them out sooner because the winery is very polluting compounds with high BOD and D.Q.O. hence their dumping is illegal, and is punishable by heavy fines , if done . Before marc accumulated in olive cake treatment plants to ferment and then either distilled or sold to distilleries. At present , it is seeking to sell asap, to specialized companies take charge of them .         

marc evacuation outside the winery is done by conveyor. This is arranged under the press , contains the skins and carrying outside the bodega , depositing on the ground waiting to be picked up by the alcohol company , which sells the winery , the byproduct .

unwound .         

Once malolactic fermentation is to make the first racking called settling, and which aims to separate the lees of fermentation. stay in contact with these wine lees causes the appearance of unpleasant tastes and odors, as a result of the decomposition of dead yeast and other compounds that accumulate in the bottom of the tank . The most common are dirty and smells hydrogen and easily go with the transfer, however, if the wine is not moved, the compounds that evolve giving rise to other more unpleasant and can no longer be deleted.         

part of this transfer others are between the settling, bottling. The winemaker decides the optimum time of settling, taking as parameters the tank odor , microbiological analysis , and by tasting wine . Perhaps the sensory analysis of wine is the most difficult parameter to measure in some instances , but in turn the most determining factor in estimating the time of the settling, . The person in charge of these tastings is winemaker .         

transfer will have several objectives :         Clarify

progressively wine.         

stock removal of CO2 from fermentation.         Eliminating hydrogen

produced during or after fermentation . The aeration is a small transfer is beneficial to remove " tufts " characteristic of fermentation, while helping to finalize other biological transformations , but never aired excess wine, because they oxidize and lose aromas .         

progressive homogenization of the different varieties items, to the final " blend " which will be bottled .         Such

transfer is performed by means of centrifugal pumps. Its operating principle is based on the centrifugal force the liquid enters through the axis of rotation and the effect of the centrifugal force created by the fins , in the circumferential direction comes to high speed and pressure. All elements of the pump in contact with the product are made of stainless steel .         

allow fluids to move between 0 and 70 ° C temperature , but must be chilled by passing cold water without pressure, when used for an extended period of time. Flows reach 100,000 l / h at pressures of 5 Kg/cm2. It is for the high speed attained by what is used in the racking.         

blames producing the strong aeration in liquid pumping , which does not make them highly recommended for transfer of wines , but if the installation is not suitable because they have problems.         

Other widely used in warehouses for the transfer of wine and must , pumps are the helical screw. These allow you to move high viscosity liquids . They consist of a fixed rubber body inside which a helical eccentric screw ( rotor) , which in its turn forms the suction and discharge chambers are housed. Are self-priming , reversible and adjustable to regulate flow , depending on rotor rotational speed , which will allow its use as a dosing pump .         

Despite its versatility, another advantage is the good treatment which gives the product .         

Refuse Disposal         

disposal of solid or semi- useless materials generated by human activity and animals were separated into four categories : agricultural , industrial, commercial and domestic waste . Commercial and domestic waste are usually organic materials , either combustible , such as paper , wood and fabric, or fuels such as metals, glass and ceramics. Industrial waste can be ash from solid fuel debris from the demolition of buildings , chemical materials , paints and dross agricultural residues are usually animal dung and crop residues .         Disposal methods


waste disposal by landfilling is the most widely used method. The rest of the waste is incinerated and a small part is used as organic fertilizer. The selection of one method or another phase is mainly based on economic criteria , reflecting local circumstances. As for recycling , it is expected that by 2000 half of household waste is recycled.         Poured


landfilling is the cheapest way to eliminate waste, but it depends on the availability of suitable sites . Overall, the collection and transportation of waste account for 75 % of the total cost of the process. This method consists of storing waste in places excavated layers . Each layer press machines to a height of 3 meters then covered with a layer of soil and re- pressed. It is essential to choose the right way for contamination does not occur either on the surface or groundwater. This is leveled and the floor above is grown waste , drainage deviates highest areas , soils are selected with few leaks and flood-prone areas or near underground springs are avoided. The anaerobic decomposition of organic waste generated gases. If a considerable amount of methane is concentrated explosion may so that the landfill should have good ventilation . Newer techniques opt for the use of these gases from the decomposition as an energy resource .         Incineration


conventional incineration furnaces are refractory or chambers in which the waste is burned , the combustion gases and the solids remaining are combusted in a second stage . Combustible materials are burned by 90 %. Besides generating heat , can be used as an energy source , incineration generates carbon dioxide , sulfur oxides and nitrogen and other gaseous pollutants , fly ash and unburned solid residues . The emission of volatile ash and other particles is controlled filters , scrubbers and electrostatic precipitators .         Recovery

energy resources         

is possible to recover some energy from waste disposal processes . In general you can make two groups: combustion processes and pyrolysis processes . Some incinerators are used for generating steam . In the walls of the combustion chamber of boiler tubes are placed , the water flowing through the tubes absorbs heat generated by combustion of the waste and produce steam .         

pyrolysis or destructive distillation process is a chemical decomposition of solid waste by heat in a low oxygen atmosphere . This generates a gas stream comprising hydrogen, methane, carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide and other gases inert ash , according to the characteristics of the pyrolyzed organic material.         

In many cities the waste is burned to produce steam that drive generators that produce electricity. Therefore, in practice, the cities trash is recycled and gets converted into electricity. This may be a routine use of the garbage in the cities of the future.         Composting


other method of waste disposal by the action of bacteria. This technique is not new to small scale. The composación performed decomposed decaying alternating layers with layers of soil residues . This creates a rich soil -like material that is high in organic matter. The main drawback is the need to separate the non- compostable material cans , glass, plastic ... some companies meet all waste, separate each type of waste in its own container and compost the garbage , which sold to the highest bidder.         Manufacture of fertilizers


manufacture of fertilizers or manure from solid waste involves the degradation of organic matter by aerobic microorganisms. First the waste is sorted to separate materials and any other utility that can not be degraded , and the rest is buried to help the process of decomposition. The resulting humus contains 1 to 3% of nitrogen , phosphorus and potassium , according to the materials used. After three weeks the product is ready to be mixed with additives, package it and sell it.         

Residues Winemaking         

winemaking residues are marc : stalks , skins and seeds . Stalks are stripped bunches of grapes, which pass what is properly the winemaking process , the skins are the skins of grapes, these is where most of tannins accumulated there .         

winemaking residues do not represent a special irrigation traditionally accumulated so no more . Some took advantage as the payment of the fields after an accumulation time outdoors, but really the most widely practiced on small farms was home distillation of the skins to produce a spirit of between 40 º -45 º, the marc itself are sometimes used as fuel for the distillation apparatus .         Using traditional


wine or flower bud represents 60-65% of grape weight , while the rest is represented by the 10% loss of carbon dioxide and 25% by marc impregnated wine vinasse considerable doses . As the skins are a significant mass found various uses both in industry and in the wine , it should look from the beginning the use of this product for best results .         Pressing


consists of squeezing the skins for all the wine possible. The wine obtained is called wine press, or standing water which is a very low alcohol wine . Various models are in use press , starting with the Latino press cam and ending with hydraulic presses and continuous presses . Press models that have been more spread are the cage , hand-operated or electric force . Cages capacity ( designed to hold the marc during operation ) varies from one to two cubic meters .         

presses cloth in enology         Carried

wort separation wine or marc , it is necessary to exhaustion for maximum performance liquid : the methods currently in use for this purpose in any case involve successive pressings .         

Using, for example, continuous presses can not bear the pressing to complete depletion not get excessively turbid tannic products with dispersed colloidal phase .         

After pressing these continuous presses is necessary to use one or two pressed with hydraulic presses.         If you want to perform

pressing with a hydraulic press only two, three or more successive pressings especially required when it comes to candy stillage that is not fermented , for example, have in the production of white wines.         

fabric presses ---. They consist of a hydraulic press special type characterized by the fact that instead of having a common cage as the typical marc has a slatted ash wood square .         

residue is distributed in successive layers on various lattices .         

Place the first lattice based on the press , rests at the base of it a wooden frame whose dimensions are slightly smaller than the lattice , and having a height of a few inches. This frame allows separate div then a hemp cloth on the lattice, is dropped from the frame ersos Turtós in the appropriate dimensions .         Placed

desired amount of pomace and proceed to the manufacture of the envelope, by folding the edges of the fabric.         

finally removes the frame , which should serve for the preparation of the following layers .         Readymade

wrappers that are normally 20 , was the pressing         

finalized this transaction, based on the press floor, exhausted turtros deleted and preparing new wing wraps proceed .         

marc pressing with press cloth :         Treatment

lee : when they represent are quite dense clutter in the cellar because the treatment is done with rudimentary systems . It arranging a press fabric is much easier and with a significantly higher yield.         

Spirits distilled from pomace         

grape and wine not only cognac , armagnac , and different types of brandy but we've seen other spirits , most of them very popular , characterized in that they are not subjected to aging in wood are obtained , which makes them targets ` s spirit , of a beautiful transparency. Spanish is the marc, the " mare " and " fine " French, the 'grappa' Italian , etc. . Spirits generally harsh , high alcohol content of around 65 ' , unrefined , very dry , and forceful . A cheap drink and Popular , which has been and is largely based on the ' cau de Vie " European , white fruit spirits, of which more later .


Spanish marc         

Unlike the ' marc ' and ' fine ' French, the most ardent señoriítos whites , Marc is a commoner, authentic distillate leftovers and maybe that's why not only cheaper, but much more dangerous. Distilling the winemaking remains, ie seeds , the skins not only vinous or ethyl alcohol, but also the harmful methyl alcohol is obtained due to the cellulose present in the pomace . A rough, dry , powerful ... dangerous spirits , therein lies its charm. It may also be , you weigh. A sinister profile , the oldest alcoholic distill , distill wine because although it is fair quality , no longer a luxury that only small glut , or demand - and therefore high - priced brandy can justify. So , like talking about wine aged spirits said that the first was, and is , cognac , with regard to spirits of wine residues , it is first , and will be, the Spanish pomace . And in Spain , since the famous master alquitarero Arnaldo de Vilanova, in the early fourteenth century, and devoted to distill spirits in praise famous writings , we have always been very fond of crafts and home - distillation as the laws allowed it clandestine then and now, and industrial consumption of grape marc . And we have retained , with the passage of time, the alchemist and therapeutic Following distillation , which still so genuinely expressed in the famous alcoholic drink morning justification " . Kill the bug " And our marc go if they kill although in some cases it has been at the expense of taking forward the hapless host.         

The truth is that teachers are so prolific work . And , between us , the true teaching Galician alquitareros take him , the ones who can distill brandy unencumbered stills to control the tax office, and the free movement restricted compared to city hall.         

contrast, home distillation of spirits has been freely practiced in all wine regions , which is to say the whole nation has been banned , with few exceptions , leaving as a heritage of the distilleries industries. In such a drastic measure to look for health not only economic reasons ( a voracious treasury ) , but , as the grape marc , as already said, it can be dangerous if not properly distilled .         

Therefore, Galicia has become not only the spirits distiller region par excellence, but the only place you can still find splendid marc obtained in its nearly 600 stills , the most mobile .         

is a modern in- surmountable brandy distilled with wise patience for " poteiros " and hardworking alchemists whose wisdom passed from parent to threads, able to extract in the cold nights of distillation, the fireside , the true " spirit of wine" in a slow drip in ceremonious interrupted .         Son

marc Betanzos, Ribadumia , Ulha , Portomarín Chantada , Sober , etc. . And , of course , of the great wine regions as Ribeiro, Albariño , Valdeorras County ... Orujos clean aroma, able to " take pa Lante chest ."         

quality as something mythical Galician marc has , of course , a real basis , which is strongly supported by the peculiar form of elaboration. The great expert writer Xose Posada, what , masterfully described in his book " Manual of wines and spirits from Galicia '. Once finished the work of the winery is only allow to ferment the grape pomace , which is shredded by hand to take breeding . Then stored in casks , bagasse or ' tweets ', far from being distilled . Marc can be white grape or ink , which must be taken into account as white grape pomace , not having been present in the fermentation process of wine, have low yields , and in some cases will require the added sugar to get a distillable liquid. By contrast, the red residue , steeped in wine, not only give more spirit , without unnecessary additions, but it will be fine .         

very delicate part of the development process is the residue storage. The important thing is to preserve him from excessive contact with air while it ferments , so you do not lose the aromas that are generated , and will depend on their quality. And above all, oxidative processes and Rots , who communicated to marc avoid odors .         

Then you need to conduct a careful distillation , where the experience accumulated over the centuries has given very precise rules . For example, the residue should not come in contact with the bottom of the ' squid '. This is a bed of straw and form bundles branch with one bucket of water . Below shows Marc trying not to fill the still, and the cap is sealed with rye flour mixed to prevent leakage. Then a fire branch is to be grilled , and oak , so that gives a smooth, continuous heat. When the drip is started, the "heads" are shot , though , there are places where it is considered the best preserved by distillation. The " poteiros " carefully monitor the process , controlling the alcoholic strength , which generally ranges between 47 º and 50 º aroma , pouring a little in the palm of your hand and rubbing to evaporation , and other unique tricks that make the personal touch of each teacher.         

course, in Galicia, as in the rest of Spain have create industrial facilities that produce pomace continuously without rites and conditioning of the artisan production. And its quality. There are brands like " Ruavieja " and " Spirits Ulla ', which have become true giants Marc , bottling it and selling it all over the country.         

not want to end this little dissertation on the Spanish marc, the brave , clean , strong and dry white wine spirits , not to mention other places historically been distilled pomace , like Leon , similar to Galicia , Castilla -La Mancha , finer and more so as it was not bland or underground , which is still running - meant to be drunk pure , but as a fruit liqueur , anisette or more commonly , Catalonia , with its famous " fassinas » liquor and great tradition Andalusia, where the skins have been the basis of its thousand and one anise , as ojén , cazalla , etc. . Most have been artisans spirits, strong alcohol content that could reach up to 800, and now have virtually disappeared by the distiller monopoly distilleries.         New Alternatives

Waste Disposal         As previously mentioned

residues vinification are not particularly dangerous , but depending on the amount and certain conditions they may pose a problem . Marc are accumulated organic matter under anaerobic conditions certain bacteria fermentation can be performed to produce more ethanol , and especially methane and carbon dioxide . These two gases are the main cause of the greenhouse effect , this natural effect is important because without it the average temp would be -18 º and 15 º it is currently gas concentrations that EI are increasing. The gases that have the greatest influence on this IE are carbon dioxide and 55 % methane with 15% , while the latter absorbs 48 times the carbon dioxide . In principle it is not a big deal compared to the quantities of industries, but that methane gas can be used to move electricity generators , so that we use our resources to the maximum.         Biomass


formed by the group of organic compounds and plant origin both animal, which contains energy in their chemical bonds and is likely to be used by humans for useful energy. Plants are able to use sunlight to reduce atmospheric carbon dioxide to energy rich organic compounds through photosynthesis.         


combustion solids typically heterogeneous and are subjected to two treatments : homogenisation consisting of crushing, chipping ... achieving a particle size and moisture enhancing its use, and the densification treatment is with identical objectives , increase the specific weight makes transport and storage.         

Pyrolysis : a charring biomass heating to 500 ° in the absence of oxygen to obtain coal.         

Gasification : gas is converted into solid fuels. This gas contains carbon monoxide , hydrogen and methane , and is obtained in the gasifiers , where the solid fuel are subjected to incomplete combustion.         

anaerobic fermentation : A method for getting rid of waste is used for anaerobic bacteria that decompose. This type of bacteria thrive in the absence of oxygen. Methane , sometimes called " biogas " is a byproduct of anaerobic decomposition by bacteria. The waste will decompose can come from human, animal or plant .         

Methane is an odorless with an index of heat capacity of 600 to 700 British thermal units ( BTUs ) per cubic foot of gas gas. ( 1 BTU is approximately the amount of heat required to raise the temperature of one pound of water by 1 ° F ) . Under natural conditions, the decomposing waste produces methane and a compound called hydrogen sulfide. Hydrogen sulfide gas gives a very unpleasant odor , sometimes called a " sewer smell " . Using devices called gas purifiers , methane can be removed from the component that produces the odor .         

Methane can also be produced artificially in a device called a methane digester . The digester is a canister containing the waste to be decomposed . Anaerobic bacteria decompose the waste des - igniting biogas byproduct. The biogas contains about 60 % methane , 35 % carbon dioxide , 3% nitrogen , 0, 1 % oxygen and traces of hydrogen sulphide. For optimal gas production , the digester should be gently stirred and maintained at a temperature of 3 8 ' C (1 00' F). The digester will produce 0, 12 to 0.31 m ' per kg of waste ( 2-5 cubic feet of gas per pound ) .         

Although about 50% of the gas is extracted from the waste in the first two weeks of production , it may still have a gas for 6 weeks.         

After the waste has been digested , the solid , known as sludge , remain . The sludge is an important product in the production of methane due to its use as fertilizer. The sludge analysis shows methane containing nitrogen, phosphorus , potassium, boron, calcium , copper, iron , magnesium, sulfur and zinc , all elements essential for plant growth .         

One drawback is the art digester gas storage . Due to its characteristics , methane can not be compressed as much as other gases. Currently , the storage structures are large and bulky .         

heat produced by the combustion of methane can have multiple uses .


Where?         MINIMUM

          Remove coarse dirt : dirt, leaves , scrape
          Soil material vintage         ELEMENTAL

          Eliminate dirt

Cleaning brush and detergent         Rinse


Local wine and bulk storage         

          Remove dirt and impoverish the means to limit the growth of microorganisms

Cleaning         Rinse



          Vendimiadoras head         

contact surfaces must and wine         

Pipes, hoses, pump , valves         

          Reduce the microbial population below a predetermined level

Cleaning         Rinse




          Surface contact with the must in the case of specific crops         Train



materials traditionally used in winemaking are several, but in our case this list is considerably reduced by presenting them a major advantage over the rest .


the traditional material in oenology . The wood is rough, elastic , porous and absorbent , thus the surface finish is very bad. Tatar is embedded easily . Should be cleaned and disinfected , although the effectiveness of such care is limited.

stainless steel.         

material whose use has become more common in oenology. This is due to its mechanical properties , but above all the state of its surface and its resistance to corrosion. Resistant to acids and alkalis oxidizing medium . Is halogen sensitive in acidic and neutral . Cleaning and disinfection are easy.         


This material has the disadvantage of being very resistant to impact and thermal variations . On the contrary, has great advantages as its hardness , be smooth and inert from the chemical point of view . The level of cleanliness that can be applied to glass is high.


elastic material which allows stoppering of bottles. It has a surface of cavernous nature susceptible of retaining microorganisms.         

NATURE OF DIRT .         

cleaning and disinfection process to be used in any case depend on the nature of the dirt. Dirt can be classified according to their origin.         

Origin and properties of the soil .         

Dirt can proceed in must or wine :         

mineral Dirt: basically it is potassium bitartrate precipitates during cooling after the fermentation of wine.         Dirt

of organic origin : dry matter is because the wine or must , or microorganisms. These are mostly coloring matter , tannins , proteins , organic acids , carbohydrates and dead or alive (yeasts , lactic and acetic bacteria , fungi ) microorganisms.         Other

dirt has a foreign origin must and wine :         

land: vintage dirt in the form of dust or mud depending on the weather .         

grease and oils from machinery and implements.         

Waste cleaning and disinfection .         

coarse dirt more easily than the little that is very sticky and is absorbed much better by eliminating surfaces . Knowledge of the physico- chemical characteristics of the soil allows to choose wisely the cleaners.         Soil microbial


When are numerous microorganisms constitute a microbial soil , are deposited in the containers and fixed on the walls , being responsible for the instability of poorly preserved wines or taste defects. In any case, the microorganisms causing alterations in enology are few wine since his low pH , its richness in organic acids and ethanol content , is an unfavorable environment for most microorganisms. Because of these properties the wine has an effective bactericide and pathogens can not develop. In winemaking, are major pollutants , molds and yeasts are fungi , or, acetic acid bacteria and lactic acid bacteria.


clarified .         

All cleaning process in a warehouse is preceded by a pre-wash with water. This allows us loose dirt to the walls of the facility without requiring scraping or brushing the surface before removing . Similarly water is the vector of the cleaning and disinfection element . It is also used in the holds as a cooling system must and wine . For each of these uses , the water must have specific properties :         

water intended for human consumption must be potable , but is not suitable for all industrial applications.         

In other cases , water must not only be safe , but have adequate physicochemical and microbiological composition. So , for rinsing bottles and cleaning of filter membranes , the water should be filtered. Water used for cooling stainless deposits by water curtain system as happens in the winery under study, should have a low chloride content .         

water chemistry and its uses.         

water cleaning process was seen as natural and evident in most of the wineries , and its composition is not even studying . But today , water has a very diverse composition of the region in question , and depending on the source you have. Because the water stored in the well is exposed to greater variability in composition, periodic analysis of these waters is necessary to determine its potability and content elements. This is to know if the water is minutes for cleaning and processing or otherwise use pre- treatments are necessary .         


Cleaning is done with the help of :         

Chemical compounds: detergents, oxidants, enzyme products .         physical

: brushing, using abrasive and ultrasound complement the performance of these products.         

general cleaning product consists of several components with complementary properties , in addition, some of these substances have disinfecting action .         

detergents are chemical compounds that allow easy removal of dirt from the surface of the substrates . The action of the detergent is determined by the length of application , the temperature and the mechanical action . Alkaline or acid agents allow solubilizándola remove dirt and disintegration , maintain the pH of the cleaning solution at a high level and have the buffering effect . Are most commonly used . Most detergents are cleansing agents which have little or no bactericidal activity , although some organic substances , such as quaternary ammonium compounds are able to kill certain bacteria.         

choose a cleaning product should take into account a number of parameters:         





water hardness         

cleaning mode         

Manual         Automatic

        Detergents and disinfectants



Compatibility         Corrosion


action of a cleaning product is a function of :         


dose of product depend on its composition and the type of problem to be solved , it is preferable to perform a preliminary test . In general we believe that the detergent is applied in an average concentration ranging between 1 and 10% ( rarely less ) , while disinfectants in the dose range is from 0.1 to 1 % .         

lower dose of detergent will make its effects diminish quickly, will not be able to all the dirt and lack of active material may cause foaming or eliminate fouling . In short, no results consume detergent .         

higher detergent concentration improves the results, although there is an optimum point beyond which excess rinse product will cause difficulties , risk handling , greater amount of residual surfactants on surfaces, occurrence of undesirable reactions such as foam and product waste . In short, clean-up costs without improving the results will become more expensive .         


As in chemical reactions , an increase in temperature the reaction rate multiplied detergent with the dirt .         

generally increased temperature :         

accelerates the reactions.         

decreases surface tension.         Facilitates

fat saponification and hydrolysis.         

thins fats , waxes, etc. . , facilitating the penetration of the detergent.         Facilitates


Despite these advantages , the temperature sometimes is limited by :         

boiling water .         

cost of heat energy.         

thermal resistance of certain materials.         Firing temperature

dirt ( protein coagulation ) .         

application method , especially in the case of manual application that limits the temperature at 45-60 ° C.         


variable with accumulated dirt , and as we said , with the other three factors.         


renewal allows dirt detergent contact with the very germs adhering dirt , facilitates ignition and prevents dirt homogenizing redeposition in the wash liquid . So hard not to want to clean without detergent and mechanical action .         

mechanized action can be performed by:         Agitation of the solution

( circuits ) .         

pressure projection.         

hand rubbing .         

HYGIENE PLAN GROUND .         Cleaning

pre harvest.         

Before the start of the campaign winemaking , the operation of machinery         

be verified if it is found at the end of the previous season.         

Once installed into place each machine or device should be cleaned of dust, remove excess fat and wash . Eventually some touch-up painting necessary should be made well in advance so that the odors have disappeared at the time of starting the campaign winemaking.         

screws should be greased again with dietary fat . All water systems, fixed or mobile, should be reviewed and if necessary desincrustarlos . Finally all the joints , male and female , the pipes should be checked .         

Cleaning during harvest.         

The following tables indicate the set of operations to be performed on vintage utensils , transport and obtain the must .         




Before the start of the harvest.         Vintage

Each day at the end of the workday .         

vintage finish .         


Plastic buckets.         

plastic drawers .
          Should be washed with plenty of water pressure , even brushing once or twice a day to remove the grape juice , and various debris (leaves, petioles ) inside the container and the ground outside.         


In certain circumstances this material can be disinfected by sulfur dioxide solutions of 2 per thousand (2nd) or with other products .         


autovasculantes (stainless steel) .
          Wash daily with pressurized water , brush inside and outside, without forgetting the turns of the handle where the fungi easily develop.         

Drain well .         Disinfect

periodically as vintage material .         

ZONE WINE :         

stemmer , HOPPER , CRUSHER , PUMPS, PRESSES , CIRCUITS (hoses , pipes ... )         


Before the start of the harvest.         Vintage

Each day at the end of the workday.         

vintage finish .         

PUMPS .         

vintage .
          Should be chosen easy to disassemble and clean . At the end of the day should demontarse for cleaning by removing the skins , seeds and other organic matter as a simple rinse with water not always evacuated .         

Once reassembled to leave open the drain hole for draining.         Before using

: wash , sanitize , rinse again with water circulating in a closed circuit (pump and hose).         

After normal use : rinse . Periodically: prewash , cleaning and rinsing .         

hoses need to be stopped draining position .         


Stalk -crusher         

Press         Hopper

          This material is often difficult to clean , however , should be cleaned daily to prevent the growth of harmful microorganisms.         By

pressure rinsing plant debris should be removed and if considered necessary should be practiced regularly disinfected to prevent the invasion of microorganisms. Cleaning is done with machinery during operation as if it were processed grapes.         MATERIAL


CIRCUITS (hoses , pipes ... )         


Before the start of the harvest.         Vintage

Each day after end of workday.         

vintage finish .         

CIRCUITS .         


Hoses .
          Fixed stainless steel after circulation of wine and to avoid their stay in the pipe, cleaned by a stream of water under pressure. If you stay long pipeline out of use , clean with disinfectant before re-use. Rinse plentiful.         MATERIAL




Whenever the reservoir is empty.         

start the cleaning period .         

STEEL TANKS .         

stainless steel tanks .
          Destartarizado Chemical Disinfection:         

tartar contains organic matter and microorganisms , being a focus of alterations that produce off-flavors and bacterial contamination. The destartarizado must be made at least once a year and by chemical processes .         Elimination

chemically tartar : tartar ( potassium bitartrate ) can be removed by a spray of alkaline solution it is prepared in a vat or projecting pressure on the vessel walls . The alkaline solution dissolving tartar drips and drops back to the bucket through the bottom hole of the tank , starting the cycle again .         

outer inerted since the system operates by cooling water shower .         


FILTER LAND         


before use .         

after use .         EARTH FILTERS

          Tartrate crystals and organic matter may accumulate on the surface of the plates and filter circuits . This soil is a rich substrate for bacteria and mold proliferation of these is favored in turn by moisture. It is therefore necessary to perform a chemical destartarizado in the following order of activity.         

prewash the filter with water to remove the coarser particles.         

chemical Destartarizado         

Rinse the end of the previous operation.         

disinfection to prevent the growth of microorganisms in filter circuits .         

Flushing before commissioning.         


MATERIAL WOOD ( barrels )         


before use .         

empty the barrel after use.         

MATERIAL WOOD .         

barrels .
          An empty barrel requires precise care , should be thoroughly rinsed with pressurized water disinfected by burning a sulfur wick drain for 4 or 5 days with the hole down and place a new sulfur and cover. The following sulfur must periodically performed every two or three months.         

Before being used the barrel should be filled with water for sulfite wood free sulfuric acid from sulfur combustion and possible residue of acetic acid formed by alteration of the wine absorbed through the pores.         

slight alteration Should a renewal of the barrel shall be conducted is first necessary to remove tartar by 10% carbonated water , repeat the procedure if necessary , the barrel can then be treated by steam and later sulfur .         

If serious deterioration (mold , sour , ... ) is almost impossible to recover the containers , since undesirable microorganisms are implanted very deeply into the wood , so the destruction of such is preferable barrels .         


( buffer tank circuit , filler )         


After the bottling operation .         

Before the start of bottling .         Maintenance cleaning

installation at end use for a period of time not determined.         



Circuit         Filling

          Will proceed to the circulating hot water at 90-100 ° C following the circuit production or flood, for the removal of coarse dirt remains . This water must pass through all the tubes and filling holes to ensure proper cleaning. Will not need any additional products for cleaning the bottling line , as with water at that temperature is achieved the required disinfection .         Cleaning and disinfection

dip detachable organs after each use .         TREATMENT OF PERSONAL HANDLER


HAND HYGIENE .         

FREQUENCY TREATMENT         Prior to the start of the process

.         During

.         HAND HYGIENE

          A good level of hygiene is obtained when the warehouse staff have understood what liquids are packaged as part of the human diet. At this time, in charge of hygiene in the company may implement and enforce the strictest cleanup programs . Hand hygiene of food handlers in the automatic filling shall be done following the procedure described below.         Treatment

gel process prior to starting hands.         Treatment with disinfectant

product alcoholic gel during the process.         



end production.         During


          Wine or grape juice during transport or handling may spill constituting this point of microbial contamination. The floor cleaning should take place when being poured wine or must to prevent accumulation of dirt with warm water using a mop .         

wine splash walls are also very common in a cellar during processing of the product. Its removal is carried out with hot water at the end of production so ensuring proper surface disinfection .         

external cleaning of equipment will be performed first with the application of a degreasing agent to remove excess fat might exist. Then we will proceed to a treatment with hot water to disinfect water equipment .         It will play an important role

hygiene and cleanliness in the existing bottling hall , which as described above will be developed here with particular rigor.         



weekly maintenance cleaning of these premises will be made.         

Whenever so required.         

LOCAL STORAGE :         

final product.         

oenological products .         

auxiliary material.
          Cleaning the floors by manual scrubbing mop since these local area is reduced . Cleaning is done with water and detergent in the same solution . To finish the operation will clear the surface thoroughly with water to avoid any other product that can harm the material stored there .         

Any spillage on the local as a result of poor handling will be deleted instantly , to eliminate the possibility of an accumulation of dirt on the floor.         


offices, changing rooms , toilets, TASTING ROOM AND SIMILAR UNITS .         


daily throughout the year .         


Offices .         

Dressing .         

Heads .         

Other similar units .
          Cleaning and general furniture dusted and phones, computers ...         Dust

radiators and blinds         

Emptying bins and ashtrays.         

Vacuum carpeted office section .         

Sweep floor with mop or brush.         

scrubbing floors using specific detergents for this purpose.         special disinfecting medical

by chlorinated detergent (sodium hypochlorite) , which have the advantage that liquid carried with only two cleaning and disinfecting functions .         

        Cleaning Vintage

completed .         

After this period of intense activity, it is important to perform some operations such as disassembly and greasing valves , air bells , gate selection , piston seals , etc. . In anticipation of downtime should protect the engine, set and protective covers to prevent dust accumulation.         

PRACTICE HANDLING . ( B.P.M. )         

This document aims to establish handling practices that are an imperative to control one of the points that presents greater risk of product contamination requirement , we must bear in mind that all food handlers are responsible frequently , from microbial contamination .         

should be monitored :         

health manipulators         

development of hygienic handling practices         

adequate personal hygiene .         

Due to the great importance of the development of a correct handling practices is necessary that a strict compliance monitoring is conducted , periodic checks are performed .         

All food handler is required to have a Driver Handler issued by the competent authority and a medical certificate attesting that, in her time of onset of labor activity , there is no medical impediment to the realization of their job.         

continue Handling Practices have been established according to the following rules :         Regulatory

food handlers ( RD 2505/1983 , August , published in the Official Gazette of September 20, 1983 . )         

Regulation laying down health rules concerning foodstuffs ( RD 2207/1995 , of 28 December , published in the Official State Gazette of February 27, 1996 . ) is set         

number of documents and detail of these Handling Practices has tried to adapt to the needs of the industry under study.         

To control all this documentation , it is desirable for the company to have some guidelines to ensure that the documents are arranged in the place where they are needed and in the updated version.         

areas where staff         

must be especially careful , are

1. HANDS AND SKIN         

thorough washing of hands with foaming and subsequent rinsing can eliminate many pathogens that could be transmitted to food. In the course of the action of washing hands, the emulsifying action of soaps on lipids and other oils and fats with the abrasive effect of friction combined , and washed down and removes loose and scattered particles containing microorganisms. Hands are wetted under a stream of warm water not hot , it enjabonarán and rub vigorously with each other for 15 seconds or more. Be clarified and then dried with a paper towel .         

This operation will be repeated :         

After using the bathroom.         

After combing hair.         

After smoking , blowing your nose.         

After handling garbage, refuse ...

2 . JEWELRY         

rings, earrings , watches, brooches, are excellent traps dirt and therefore a source of harmful bacteria that can become part of the final product to fall resulting in deposits :

final product.         

detrimental to product quality .         

3 . STAFF APPAREL         

staff working in a packaging plant must look clean , neat clothes and work with selected material with sufficient guarantees of hygiene and cleanliness.         

4 . SMOKING         

action of smoking while handling food is aesthetically unacceptable and increases the likelihood that microorganisms with hands , from the lips and mouth , food is transferred. Favors the possibility of coughing and sneezing. Butts and ash can fall into the food and contaminate it .

butts , which are contaminated with saliva rely on work surfaces and promote cross-contamination.         

This has greater importance during the bottling operation , since it is the final packaging in which the consumer will receive the product.         

restriction areas be correctly marked as follows :         

always better to prevent the possibility of contamination , alteration and deterioration, and to remedy the evil caused. It is best to ensure that all staff are properly trained and trained in basic hygiene needs before allowing start working . This basic training sessions should be continued with recycling or memory.         

a good level of hygiene is obtained when the warehouse staff have understood what are packaged liquid form         

part of the human diet. At this time, in charge of hygiene in the winery may apply and enforce stricter cleanup programs .         


          A number of important factors to keep in mind when going to establish a commercial planting of vines , which influence throughout the period of development and production of a crop.
          Investment to establish a hectare of vines is quite high and any mistake made on the plantation can cause problems later would detriment of production.
          Therefore , one must consider at all times that an investment of this type is long term , so you have to consider the best elements for success in establishing a parronal .
          For optimum development of the vine is suitable dry climate with moderate temperatures to hot for a period of time and cold winters. The wet summers , besides affecting the maturity and quality of the grape, favor the development of pests and diseases.
          This, therefore, is a limiting development of viticulture in many areas, particularly areas costeras.Las local variations affect the choice of varieties , cultural practices and product quality .
          Other factors to consider are: frost , high winds , rainfall under rainfed conditions, etc. .
          A commercial land for planting vines must meet certain conditions for that once in production , this keeps the maximum uniformly .
          Ideally, choose a field that has not had vines in the last 10 years , or that have not been used for crops susceptible to nematodes and / or root diseases , such as tomato, pepper , chili, etc. .
          Should have a soil infested with nematodes is highly recommended to spray the planting hole (3 m2 ) , before doing it , in order to reduce the risk of root problems.
          The most important factors to consider in choosing the field are:
          Water Availability.
          In the irrigation area , availability must be permanent, or within a safe range so that in a period of drought not to endanger the plantation.
          This factor is vital , where drought cycles can last for several years in some valleys or sectors. In dry areas , water availability has a direct relationship with soil depth , texture, organic matter content , soil and topographic location .
          For example , on low ground ( vegas ) there is an availability of water from the most part , more surface runoff from higher ground.
          Soil depth.
          The vine is a deep rooting plant , that develops an extensive root system , hence , it is advisable to choose deep soils ( greater than 1.5 m. ) : In areas where the availability of this type of soil , could be considered a thinner soil provided that it has drainage problems.
        Together with depth , it is important soil fertility , as deep and fertile soils favor a greater harvest reducing production costs . It is also important to worry about soil salinity and high concentrations of some elements .         


          The flat or very low slope are those that produce fewer problems for the general management of the vineyard , however , can use soils with steep slopes , controlling erosion by planting contour .
          Should also be considered the microrelief of the soil, ie those depressions or mounds of small surfaces. Soil depth in this case will determine the type of equipment that can be used to level or match the microrelief . If the profile is very thin as well with rugged topography , only allow a slight emparejadura and contour planting .
          In rainfed areas , the undulating topography is not objectionable and may even be advantageous.
          The topography of the land will also be determining the conduction system of the vineyard.
          Drain .
          Most cultivated plants can not survive or are very limited in their development if they remain rooted long without oxygen.
          In saturated soil , water displaces air from the spaces between the particles and hence the oxygen content is limited , causing suffocation of the roots . Hence it is important to consider this factor as the vine for its deep rooting needs good drainage. Therefore, those areas of low status may have been vegas in years of abundant precipitation should not be considered for future planting unless you enable them with a good drainage system. The same is true for those areas that have a shallow water table .
          Also have disadvantages to planting, soils that have an impermeable strata such as " hard pan " or " rough " which would prevent the development of roots, as also water circulation at depth.
          Sun exposure.
          With regard to this aspect , there is generally no problems in hot areas, but in colder areas planting is advisable to make face north .
          Site preparation
          According to the field you have chosen for planting, there are several possibilities as to its topographical improvement prior to planting . Thus may need some of the following tasks:
          Clearing, grubbing and / or despedradura .
          Depending on the amount and type of logs or trees exist, this work can be done by hand , with light or may need to use heavy duty machinery ( bulldozer ) machinery. Any of these possibilities will be , in any case, determined by the terrain and existing vegetation .
          Earthmoving .
          Labor that allows plug some holes , ditches , etc. . As well , make a rude improved topography ( improve microrelief ) .
          Subsoiling .
          Although this practice is recommended in all cases , should be done in uneven floors or who have an impermeable strata at depth , thereby improving the drainage of these soils and to ensure good implementation of the new vineyard.
          Deep plowing .
          This operation is to loosen the soil to the possible compaction bulldozer , or, if you have not done any of the above work , start preparing the ground . By this it is possible to tease out roots and rocks that would cross .
          - Rastraje .
          With the loosening is achieved rastraje leaving the floor free of clods and weeds , facilitating routing, staking and subsequent hoyadura . Lets also left the field in a position to make pairing microrelief or , leveling if this were the case .
          Match and / or leveling.
          This operation leaves the ground in a position to effect a straight plantation which in turn allows the irrigation through straight grooves slowing the water, as otherwise it poor utilization would occur , as would also cause erosion .
          Pairing is convenient to do so when conditions permit , whether ornot plantation contour . This allows reducing the number of "twin " also maintain a similar distance between rows . In uneven terrain, making the layout , the rows are close to or separated from each other with ease , leaving many short rows or "twin " , which make it difficult to manage .
        Land preparation should be made between the months of July and August in the year of planting .         

        Plotting and Estacado

          Should be performed once the soil preparation in the months of January and February being able to lengthen, in the case of rainfed area until August and September, depending on the precipitation of the year , which determines the time of planting .
          This is of particular importance , especially in cases where the plantation is postacion and pre- wiring. Any errors in the layout , planting bring errors that prevent or complicate subsequent placement of poles and wires stretching .
          To make the path, there are two ways :
          Using level
          Using wire .
          Whatever the system used , should be available paths around parronal future or vineyard 2-4 mts . wide, allowing rotation of the tractor with implements, or he transit vehicles.
          It is also necessary to draw streets that bound the barracks and to facilitate harvest. The width of these streets may vary between 2 and 4m . for example, if it is separate two quarters each parronal 3 has. , It should leave a path of about 6 meters. wide. The size depends on the barracks of the conduction system , topography and ground surface chosen for planting.
          Another aspect that is common to both systems layout, is squaring off and it has to do with drawing lines reference mothers , who do not necessarily have to be part of the plantation. To draw them , is taken as reference a path , drywall , ditch, trees or any other point this bounding side for some future planting .
          For the layout stakes, indicating the location of plants and poles are used. The stakes should be as possible rights, of a diameter of 2 to 4 cm . And a length of 40 to 50 cm .
          Trace level .
          With the level quadrature lines , lines mothers and teachers rows of stakes that are placed at certain distances and in both senses of the plantation which serve to guide plotted , spaces or quadrants without stakes are filled by using a wire , canvas or string tensioned well placed between two teachers at the required distance , which indicate the alignment of the stakes. According to the framework distances ranging between 33 cm and 1 meter
          The row spacing is determined by a tablet , huincha or in the case of using wire , by welding or paint mark the desirable distance . The important thing is that the wire or twine stringline is well drawn and not be obstructed by stones or lumps to be extended , as this distorts the measurement and alignment.
          The foregoing is for a plantation in flat or semi-flat terrain , ie, a path in square.
          For the case that the plantation is in contour lines , it will have to find the lines of equal elevation or slope staking later do .
          However, when it comes to small areas , you can use " homemade levels " (hose ) or a carpenter's level angle .
          For plotting level curves , allow a greater number of samples , otherwise , the rows that are filled later with a slope may be distorted .
          The filling is made with rows drawn plow horse or a tractor with furrow to be following the curve indicated by mothers put stakes in the ground.
          The closeness between rows allows better execution or copy the path. Once done this, it is necessary to indicate the place of each plant in the row .
          The staked to do starting from one end and following the curve as drawn , or, draw lines parallel to the main line to the planting distance in the row . The latter , only in aesthetic appearance involves planting because in the first case, being easier to implement , are disordered plants , whereas in the other case, the reverse occurs .
          Layout and staking using huincha and wire.
          This system is homemade and is only usable in small size layout where you can reduce some errors that can occur with this system, such as low precision in the corners or failures in the gap between a pole and the other due to a bad wire tension . Therefore, this system is recommended in the case of large area plantations .
          Hoyadura planting
          This work must be done in the months of June to August as the deadline , so to make planting with plant in recess.
          The hole should have the following dimensions : 10x40 cm
          There is another method to do the planting hole and used exclusively for vineyards , such as passing a plow down the row , then go to the desired planting distance .
          It should be between the months of January to April because otherwise the loss of plants from dehydration will be high, as the initial force loss by death of new shoots .
          The baleen plants should take from the nursery to the planting site prior to and remain in fallow or cellar deck new wet sacks . Ideally the shortest possible time elapses between the start of the nursery and planting .
          The plant should come disinfected nursery , therefore, prior to planting only should check the roots for modules to indicate the presence of nematodes or grit that may have escaped selection by the nurseryman check . Observed any of these problems , the plant should be removed.
          For extra safety it is advisable to do a little root pruning and treating them by immersion in a solution of 0.25 % Na hypochlorite for one minute.
          Before planting in some areas it is recommended to apply a basic fertilization of P , K, the consistent planting hole approximately 400 gr. A mixture of superphosphate and sulphate Triple K equally. Once the fertilizer applied , a shovelful of earth is added , in order to keep the fertilizer in direct contact with the roots.
          Once complete fertilization proceeds to planting , to thereby require that each has its own planter planter table. This is matched with lateral notches in their existing auxiliary poles at both sides of the planting . The plant is placed in the notch in the center , then begins to cover the hole in the first floor from the first 20 cm. Soil , ie, the top layer is tamped tightly and gives him a gentle pull up the plant as a way to place it well and see if it was tight the neighboring land to its trunk . After that it is possible to remove the planter table and finish filling the hole with soil from the bottom half.
        When it has finished planting a row a groove is plotted along a double row and rate each of the plants, then watered preventing water reaches the trunk is . For rainfed conditions each plant carries a rate to water them individually.         


Management .
          After planting until the first winter s must have the following care in handling :
          Irrigation .
          These should be frequent depending on soil texture . In general , sandy soils in the frequency must be greater than in clay soils , which retain more moisture.
          Weed control :
          The clean must be periodic , so keep the soil and especially the rate , free from weeds that compete for light, water and nutrients to the plant being established .
          In the middle of the growing season , November to December , it may be a nitrogen fertilization of 300 gr. De Salitre or 100 gr. Urea per plant before watering . This fertilizer can be repeated every 30 to 40 days until the season .
          Amarra :
          The vegetation can be left free to a good root system is formed at the expense of greater leaf area .
        For the case that the first wire or stake is known, it is necessary to tie a tutor and all existing vegetation such as lettuce him. It has the structure , these cuttings are tied wing buds .         


  1. Climatology in the vineyard
                Climate factors : latitude, altitude and proximity to the sea
                The climate of a place is the set of air time is given throughout the years
                Different places have different climates , as they depend on several elements.
                The most important elements are: latitude , altitude and proximity to the sea
                The Latitude
                Latitude is the distance from a particular location to Ecuador and is measured in degrees. Always tell if the place is in northern or southern hemisphere .
                The climate depends on the distance from a point to Ecuador . The further away from that point is Ecuador , colder ago.
                The Altitude
                The altitude of a place is the height of that location relative to sea.
                The more altitude, the temperature drops and this means that it is colder
                Proximity to the sea
                The sun's rays heat the earth equally and sea. However the sea cools and heats more slowly than land , so if the soil is cold ( in winter) the sea is warmer and if it is hot (summer ) sea is cooler. This softens much the temperatures of places near the sea .
                When we are in a place, at a particular time , we can feel the temperature ( hot or cold ) , precipitation (rain or dry weather there ) , and if there is wind .
                Temperature , precipitation and wind are what we call weather.
                Weather = precipitation + temperature + wind.
                In a place changing temperatures , precipitation and wind over the months and years. Not always hot , not always raining and there is always wind .
                The weather in one place changes throughout the year and is not the same year after year.
                TEMPERATURE : Grade level or thermal bodies , related to the kinetic energy of the molecules thereof. The ambient temperature of the atmosphere surrounding a body . Maximum and minimum temperatures, the greater or lesser degree of heat that is observed in the atmosphere or in a body during a given period of observation.
                To measure it , the thermometer is used and in degrees Celsius (º C).
                PRECIPITATION : Water from the atmosphere than solid ( snow or hail ) or liquid form is deposited onto the surface of the earth . Usually measured in liters per square meter to gauge.
                Evaporation is a process in which a liquid or solid is gradually converted to gas , considering that in this process the water is heated by absorbing heat energy from the sun considering this , the energy source of the sun and this allows finish off phase. The energy required for a gram of water into steam is 540 calories at 100 value known how heat of evaporation . Upon evaporation occur air temperature decreases , when being taken heat from the surface by the procedentemente evaporation is transported to other levels by the reverse process of condensation, this time with a mechanism of great importance , in relation to the transfer and distribution of heat in the atmosphere over the globe .
                WIND: Draft produced in the atmosphere by natural causes. Atmospheric air. We measure your velicidad with anemometer and observe its di
                SOLAR RADIATION : Radiation from the sun is being the energy source of the Earth's surface, its effect on the organic life of our planet and its importance in understanding other meteorological phenomena is the element of time and climate should be studied from the standpoint of cause - effect.
                Without the radiation may not be temperature differences , the evaporation , and variations in the range of the air, which in turn are responsible for different movements within the atmosphere .
                By their nature solar radiation emits two very different types of radiation . Wave or electromagnetic radiation (solar radiation) consists of visible rays , infrared and ultraviolet light speed 300,000 km / sec, the approximate surface temperature of the sun is 6000 ° C , with this temperature the sun radiates 56 x 1026 cal / g / min , in all directions.
                These radiations increasingly radios and cover larger areas as they move away from the sun. The distance from the sun to the earth is 190 million km
                MEASURING ELEMENTS
                For the weather that makes the climate of a place , we need certain tools that indicate how hot it feels , how much rain or snow has fallen , how strong the wind blows , and in what direction .
                Thermometer : An instrument used to measure the temperature of a body or an environment .
                RAIN GAUGE : A device that measures the amount of rain falling in a particular place at a given time.
                Evaporimeter ( micrometer screw ) this device is constituted by a cylindrical metal tank of 200 cm2 which rests on a tripod and a micrometer screw nose pliers. The screw carries a scale graduated in mm increases from top to bottom and the top of the screw carries a circular graduation in tenths of millimeters .
                Evaporimeters ( tanks outdoors ) these tanks are placed directly into the sun and exposed to rainfall. These vary in size and shape and installation but the principle is the same , the measurement of water evaporation power
                VELETA : Mobile plate about a vertical axis which is placed on top of a building to indicate wind direction .
                WIND GAUGE : Instrument for measuring wind speed.
                Pyranometer measures the solar radiation that emanates from an entire hemisphere .
                PORHELIÓMETRO : An instrument for the measurement of direct solar radiation at normal incidence and measurements of global radiation and sky radiation
                Although temperature is important is not the most important factor . Trees need a certain level of soil moisture to survive and grow . These needs depend on the area and if problems arise no shortage or flooding .
                If there is lack of water :
                Decrease the number of shoots and buds are shorter. The tree may die of thirst if drought.
                Also affected floral induction ( induced a lower percentage of buds to flower buds ) .
                Fruit size is reduced if water is scarce . Also affected fruit quality (in terms of color and other sensory qualities ) .
                Usually temperate species could be grown with 700 mm. So the problem is not really the lack of water, but has a high irregularity in the distribution of rainfall . Thus, if the tree lives with rain water , is grown in rainfed and, for irrigation, is grown under irrigation .
                Temperate species ( with rainfall of 500 mm ) can be:
                Drought resistant that can be grown in dry land .
                Less resistant to drought and irrigation for which support is recommended.
                Sensitive to drought and require irrigation.
                Rain can cause damage by ocaasionalidd :
                During flowering :
                - The bees do not fly if it rains.
                - Pollen grains can be dragged to the ground.
                - Losses of flowers.
                - Wash pollen already in the stigmata.
                During fruit development :
                - Cracked or split fruit : is given by an excessive accumulation of water by the fruit after a period of drought (via the root epidermis and satellite ) and, as the skin is not elastic , cracked .
                - If there is high humidity and continuous , it produces the " russeting " or potato skin : giving suberifican microscopic cracks and brownish brown spots that determine the consumer. It can also occur due to a process of phytotoxicity.
                - Massive fruit drop or fall of maturity: The problem is greater in heavier fruits and late maturing species .
                - The rains also affect the appearance of fungi and fungal diseases . In dry areas this is not so bad ( just something in spring and autumn ), but , instead, as there is high humidity , the problem is mites ( spider mites ) .
                During the period of vegetative activity : May cause choking if there is much flooding for several days, and lack of oxygen to the seeds.
                STROKE .
                All species need to survive because it affects photosynthesis. Needs vary between species and even different varieties being different periods of the year.
                The fruit are best in sunny areas and shady areas in production is higher.
                Damage caused by low insolation .
                Decreasing the intensity of photosynthesis : The tree produces less hydrocarbon substances causing decreased vegetative growth ( there are fewer and shorter shoots ) and that the blades are smaller than normal.
                As the tree grows , the vegetation is more abundant in the outer zones , which provide shade to the inner primary branches , which are left bare . This fact is independent of the insulation that is in the area and indicates poor performance of pruning.
                There is less floral induction , as fewer carbohydrates are formed.
                The fruit is not good its pigments ( in areas where this problem is given , it must cultivate varieties of green fruit , where the problem is less severe).
                This problem had to be put flat driving systems ( trellis ) .
                Damage caused by high insolation .
                Destruction of pigments , which leads to darker fruits ( occurs with excessive sunburn , but not too high ) .
                Color Sheet : The fruit , for the most exposed face has a darker color, which can sometimes lead to a serious burn that makes the area much soften and lose business validity. This phenomenon is more common in some varieties of color.
                Asurado : shoots and leaves are dehydrated and fall . The problem comes when the asurado is repeated for many years.
                On the wood can cause burns , especially on the south side . In plantations can also produce these burns ( those plants usually come from nurseries where conditions were very soft
                Trees need aeration in the glass to give oxygen renewal and wood and flower buds are renewed. However, if the air is very intense, there are a number of problems:
                Mechanics, in which the wind speed is key:
                May fall leaves necrotic because it hit .
                Smaller than normal leaves .
                Mechanical damage to fruit, depending on the size of the fruit and are more important the larger the fruit.
                Rameo fruit ( fruit bouquets bang against and suffer injuries).
                Increased drop early maturity if the variety is prone to this decline.
                Strong winds cause dominant direction trunks bow and glasses deformed ( grow in the area opposite the wind and glasses are given in the form of flame).
                Breaking branches and uprooting the tree ( booted from the root) with winds of over 30 km / h .
                Large wounds that result in gullies to not heal. Through them you can get fungal pests and moisture.
                Difficulties in growing operations ( spraying, misting sprinkler irrigation ) .
                Physiologic, in which important characteristics of the wind and not speed :
                Prevents the flight of the bees if its speed exceeds 10 km / h , which makes no pollination.
                Asurado buds and leaves by hot dry winds , although the water supply is sufficient , since perspiration is very intense.
                There saline winds in coastal areas salt deposited on the leaves , which is phytotoxic . No need to be very strong winds.
                HAIL AND HAIL .
                Hail: Precipitation spherical transparent with size between 2 and 5mm diameter ice.
                Granulated white snow or hail : It 's opaque and white faces .
                Hail : irregular , non-transparent and with diameters greater than 5mm pieces .
                Usually associated with strong wind and rain ( storms). It 's given in spring and summer, in the evening after a hot and windless morning.
                They tend to be erratic phenomena (not used laboratory data ) and very localized .
                The damage caused is mechanical damage , which are breeding grounds for fungal diseases (which can cause more severe than own hail damage). Fundamentals are :
                - Hits on the tree.
                - Breaks and defoliation .
                - Drop off.
                - Damage to wood.
                To detect the risk of hail is important to know with certainty whether there may be some risk (if a hailstorm per year may be no condition for planting ) .
                Defensive measures are useless post , so that more preventive measures based on more hail is formed but is smaller and less falling speed are used:
                There are insurance policies combined to frost, wind and hail .
                Install a network of plastic nets on poles .
                Can be removed leaving the wood wound innermost grow timber . While treatments are also given fungicides . freeze is used by the sheet. If the spray is kept constant during the period of low temperature until ice is melted by the action of the sun , the temperature of the blade does not descend from O ° C. It is important to note that if it is a crop with fine branches , the weight of ice can break them. Spraying should begin when the temperature drops to l ° C and must be maintained without interruption until after sunrise , so the warming compensates the absorption of heat produced by the melting ice.
                There is a factor of the most complicated (contributes to soil moisture , protects from the cold ... ) . But problems arise in evergreen trees ( breakages ) or where there are early snowfall. If the snow is frozen in the ground , there are problems in the neck of the plant, which is annealed ( freezes) . These snowfalls are dangerous in young seedlings . As a preventive measure :
                Prune so that the skeletons do not accumulate much snow.
                Forms supported for snow not lie to the tree.
                Ridging in vineyard and grafted at higher altitudes .
                Use very cold resistant rootstocks in central Europe.
                FROST .
                Frosts is considered when the air temperature recorded at the meteorological stations (ie 1.50 meters above ground level) , is 0 ° C. This way of defining the phenomenon was agreed by meteorologists and climatologists , but many times, the temperature of the soil surface can be 3-4 ° C lower than that recorded in the warm weather .
                From the point of view of agricultural weather , you can not consider ice to the occurrence of a certain temperature , as there are vegetables that suffer from low temperatures without it reaches zero degrees (eg coffee, cacao and other tropical plants) .
                There are different types of frost. According to its origin are classified as:
                Advection frosts : occur in a region where it is " invaded " by a cold air mass whose temperature is below 0 º C. This type of frost is characterized by the presence of winds with speeds equal to or above 15 km / h and the temperature gradient ( temperature variation with height) is negative, no inversion. The affected areas are extensive and cloud cover does not affect the temperature , which undergoes variations up to the time . The plants are cooled by contact.
                Radiation frosts : They are produced by the cooling of the lower layers of the atmosphere and bodies in them are due to the loss of terrestrial heat radiation at night. A stratification of the air where the lower layers are cooler and the top layers are warmer ( temperature inversion ) occurs . This type of frost occurs in conditions of calm or light winds , as the absence of wind mixing prevents these layers , and also with clear sky allowing greater heat loss from the surface. The heat loss is greater when the nights begin to be longer and the air moisture content is lower. In soils covered with vegetation and at the bottom of the valley is more likely that this type of frost den . In the case of vegetation cover , this acts as insulation between the soil and the atmosphere , preventing heat from the ground is transmitted rapidly to air. It also reduces heat buildup in the soil to prevent the entry of solar radiation . The relief of the land for their various accidents, determines the direction and intensity of the flow of cold night air . If the soil is pending , cold ( denser ) air seek lower levels , where they will park and continue to cool . That is why the bottom of the valley is conducive to the formation of frost.

                Frost Evaporation due to the evaporation of liquid water from the plant surface . It often occurs when , due to the reduction in atmospheric humidity, the dew formed on the plants evaporates . The transition from liquid water to the gaseous state requires heat . That heat is provided by the plant with its subsequent cooling.
                Mixed Frost: They are called so that those icy cold air overturning and soil heat loss by radiation occur simultaneously .
                According to visual effects that cause this phenomenon :
                White frost : occurs when the temperature falls below O ° C and ice forms on the surface of plants. This type of frost occurs humid air masses . Besides the calm wind and clear skies favor its formation .
                Black Frost: In the black frost descent below O ° C is accompanied by icing. His appointment responds to the display of the color they acquire some plant organs due to the destruction caused by the cold. This kind of freezing occurs when the mass of air is dry . The sky covered or partially covered or turbulence in lower layers of the atmosphere favors the formation of this type of frost.
                Frosts are common in the winter, but also occur in autumn and spring , knowing the autumn as early as spring frost and late frost . In these two seasons the plants are very sensitive to sudden drops in temperature .
                PRIMAVERALES FROST : The flower, in each of their states during flowering , is very sensitive to cold. Inside, the most noticeable are the ovary with the egg and the base of the style. With temperatures of -1 ° C or -2 ° C can burn these areas ( refer to temperatures in the flower, not in the air ) . If the covers around these areas, protect , so , as the bud develops , acquires less hardiness:
                The most sensitive state is set fruit because the fruit is naked and also the walls are thin and failing to protect the embryo or seed.
                Among the species of fruits , vines , olive and walnut are the most sensitive to spring frosts ( borración defend and delaying its flowering).
                The wooden shoots and buds are sensitive to spring frosts ( burning these outbreaks and reacted to the plant, sprouting axillary buds below that burned , causing additional problems of energy expenditure) .
                In principle, temperate species are more resistant to spring the warm temperate areas of frost. Grades are important even , as average degree can affect some species and not others.
                Typically, spring frosts do not affect old wooden wing , but flowering and growing shoots . As the fruit matures, increases resistance to cold
                How low temperatures affect the plant ?
                As a result of low temperatures , on the ground the following steps occur :
                Functional weakening of the reduced activity inter alia enzymatic actions of respiratory rate , the photosynthetic activity and the rate of water absorption occurs
                A displacement of biological balances slowing respiration, photosynthesis, transpiration , water absorption and upwelling .
                Finally, cell death and tissue destruction occurs
                Keep in mind that the plant has a sensitivity to cold depends on their stage of development . The most vulnerable to cold phenological stages are flowering and fruit set .
                Many plants have created Natural hardiness:
                By concentration of the cell juice. Thus the freezing point drops .
                By hardening : when the temperatures drop progressively takes the plant will adapt to the new situation by cellular physiological changes.
                Methods of protection against frost
                Two types of methods are distinguished for frost control in agriculture: passive methods and active methods .
                Passive methods :
                a) Avoid sensitive crop species or varieties to low temperatures , in areas where there are very high chances of frost occurring .
                b ) Choose resistant varieties and taller , to avoid contact with the flowers cold air near the ground .
                c ) Sensitive species should not be implanted in depressions. Prefer , in these cases , the warmer faldeos
                d ) Where there is a barrier , such as a too dense windbreak curtain , the danger of frost is greater towards the top side of the slope.
                f ) Avoid planting prairies , cereals , shrubs or nurseries in the vicinity of a fruit orchard. These act as insulators of heat flow from the ground, increasing the risk of frost damage in low crops .
                g ) Avoid excessive tillage . If so, a layer of loose soil which acts as an insulator of heat flowing from the deepest layers of soil to the surface is formed.
                h ) Keep the floor as far as possible free of weeds, without moving and not let a lot of straw or other material on the ground.
                Active methods : These are applied right at the start and during frost . The principle of these methods is very simple: the ice is due to the cold, so we must prevent cooling . To avoid a frost is enough, in theory, contribute to the soil surface energy equal to that lost by the surface , which is what causes the cooling. There are also methods which act directly on the plant temperature .
                There are several ways to cause heating of the air :
                a) Flooding of land , which increases soil heat capacity and thermal conductivity.
                b ) mechanical mixing of air is mixing with the help of large propellers, close down, with the warm air from higher atmospheric layers cold air.
                c ) Protection interruption of radiation is to avoid radiation losses using some kind of "ceiling" on vegetation .
                d ) Curtains smoke, clouds or fog. Whereas air has poor thermal conductivity and heat transfer through it , to the surrounding objects , it is difficult , has been tested to transfer heat directly to the plants .
              e) heating the air around the plant is to heat the cold air surrounding the plant, as it is this that causes the cooling plant . One of the most used methods is to ignite burners ( jars ) of oil, 100 to 300 per hectare. Another alternative are the agitators of hot air or gas burners .