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Wine in moderation

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Guidelines for responsible consumption
          How much is too much?
          Benefits of moderate consumption
          
          
          
          Wine, a culture of moderation moderaciónLa culture
          The product
          Socioeconomic dimension
          History of wine
          Wine culture
          Habits
          
          Abuse and use indebidoRiesgos
          Restrictions for minors
          Wine consumption and legislation
          Drinking and driving
          
          Guidelines for responsible consumption responsableConsumo
          How much is too much?
          Benefits of moderate consumption
          Pregnant women
          
          Responsible Consumption
          Key points to savor
          To enjoy wine correctly < / strong >
          Understand drinking wine : importance where their uniqueness increases the pleasure of tasting wine.
          Drink slowly, take time to savor the distinctive taste of the wine.
          Accompany the meal with a good wine : Enjoy a wine that complements your meal with a glass of water.
          Eat regular small amounts of wine: it is preferable to consume wine " binge " .
          Do not exceed the guidelines for moderate drinking (consuming low risk).
          Based on available scientific research and references provided by various public health authorities accepted that the low-risk moderate consumption is among the values ​​given below :
          Guidelines for low-risk moderate consumption :
          Up to 2 drink units a day for women.
          Up to 3 drink units a day for men.
          No more than 4 drink units on any occasion.
          Alcohol consumption during pregnancy should be avoided in certain situations such as , for example , when taking medication or operating machinery .
          Wine consumption requires maturity : children should not drink alcohol.
          During pregnancy , it is best to avoid alcohol .
          Avoid drinking while driving and - anyway - never exceed the limits of the TAS for drivers established in legislation.
          
          Alcohol consumption: measurement terms
          
          1 unit of drinking (UB ) * that contains 10 grams of pure alcohol equals:
          
          10cl of wine with a degree
          12 % alcohol by volume
          10cl sparkling wine with a degree
          12 % alcohol by volume
          6cl liqueur wine with a degree
          20 % alcohol by volume
          
          7cl flavored wine with a degree
          alcoholic strength by volume of 15 %
          
          
          
          (* ) This term indicates the average pure alcohol content expressed in common units of consumption, although volumes served and the guidelines on consumption tend to vary by country.
          Did you know ... ?
          The production and consumption of wine are part of the European heritage for millennia . Today, the European Union is the main producer and exporter of wine.
          Each wine is a unique natural product. To ensure authenticity and quality, the wine is subjected to a strict global standard wine producer to the consumer.
          Prized for its flavor, texture, body , color , aroma and variety , wine is often the ideal complement to a good meal.
          Only consuming moderate wine slowly and may be fully enjoyed and appreciated their complex flavors.
          The abuse and misuse of alcohol causes damage to health and can lead to a range of social harms .
          If the wine is consumed according to the moderation guidelines recommended for adults as part of a balanced diet , it is perfectly compatible with a healthy lifestyle . However, drinking more than the recommended guidelines counseled not provide more benefits ,only more harm to your health!
          
          
          
          
          
          When in doubt, consult your doctor !
          
          
          The authors of this information have paid special attention to ensure the accuracy of the same at the time of publication, and are not responsible for any error or omission.
          
           Guidelines for responsible consumption responsableConsumo
          How much is too much?
          Guidelines for moderation : How much is too much? < / strong >
          
          Many factors such as age, body mass index , ethnicity, family history, general health and medication influence the definition of the current guidelines on alcohol consumption.
          The rate at which alcohol is consumed and if you drink eating - as well as the amount and type of food - are conditions that influence the absorption of alcohol.
          
          However, based on available research and different international references provided by various public authorities , from the medical point of view , it is accepted that moderate low-risk drinking is among those set out below ( Corrao et al values. , 2000 ) :         


          Guidelines for low-risk moderate consumption :
          Up to 2 drink units a day for women.
          Up to 3 drink units a day for men.
          No more than 4 drink units on any occasion. < / P>         


          Alcohol consumption during pregnancy should be avoided in certain situations such as , for example , when taking medication or operating machinery .
          Alcohol consumption: measurement terms
          
          1 unit of drinking (UB ) * containing 10 grams
          of pure alcohol equals:
          
          10cl of wine with a degree
          12 % alcohol by volume
          10cl sparkling wine with a degree
          12 % alcohol by volume
          6cl liqueur wine with a degree
          20 % alcohol by volume
          
          7cl flavored wine with a degree
          alcoholic strength by volume of 15 %
          
          
          
          (* ) This term indicates the average pure alcohol content expressed in common units of consumption, although volumes served and the guidelines on consumption tend to vary by country.
          
          
          Consumption of low risk considering the amount of alcohol a person can consume without danger that the negative social effects and damage to health ( MC Dufour , 1999 ) were significantly increased. This definition can be extended to include the amount of alcohol a person can safely consume and potentially experience or benefit from the positive effects on their long-term health .
          
          
          
          Importance of drinking habits
          
          However, are not only important quantities of ingested alcohol, but also consumption patterns (ie how alcohol is consumed ) and the circumstances in which it is consumed.
          
          As indicated by scientific research , regular, moderate alcohol consumption is beneficial and is associated with a risk of morbidity and lower than those of " binge drinking " mortality ( English binge drinking ) in the same amount of alcohol during weekends , for example ( JS Tolstrup et al. , 2004 KJ Mukamal et al. , 2003 P. Marques -Vidal et al. , 2000 , Rehm J et al. , 2003 , Baglietto L et al, 2006 ) .
          
          
          
          Who should NOT meet the guidelines ?
          
          The guidelines on moderate drinking NOT apply to :
          
          youth who have not reached physical maturity
          pregnant women
          drivers
          people taking medication incompatible with alcohol intake
          people with a history of addiction or suffering from certain diseases.
          
          
          If in doubt , consult your doctor !
          
          If these guidelines are respected , moderate consumption of wine for adults - as part of a balanced diet - is compatible with a healthy lifestyle low risk. Although some European cultures suffer more alcohol-related than others, a moderate consumption of these issues is still the norm . < / P>         


           benefits of moderate consumption
            Alcohol and heart
            A regular, moderate consumption of wine is associated with several health benefits . < / Strong > < / p>         
          < / strong > In developed countries , cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of death and account for up to 50 % of all deaths ( Gronbaek M , 2004). Scientific studies consistently show that consuming alcohol in moderation reduces mortality from coronary heart disease and other causes by 25-30 % in middle age , especially men over 40 and postmenopausal women ( Corrao G et al . , 2000; Wannamethee SG et al 2003; . Klatsky to et al, 2003 , a Di Castelnuovo et al, 2002 . . . Klatsky AL, 2007 , Gronbaek M , 2004).
          
          Curve jotaforme association between mortality risk and alcohol
          People who drink wine in moderation live longer than those who abstain or drink heavily . This association , widely accepted , is known as jotaforme curve. The relative risk of dying is at its lowest point among people who drink little or consume wine in moderation and was greater among abstainers . However, the risk increases dramatically with each quantity that exceeds moderation. Therefore, when one or two drinks can be considered " good health " drink more advisable not provide more benefits ,only more harm to your health! ( Corrao et al. , 2000 ) .
          
          
          How it works?
          It is believed that about half of the cardioprotective effects of wine are due to alcohol itself , as favorably alters the balance of blood fats .
          
          Vascular diseases arise when bad cholesterol ( LDL ) is deposited on artery walls , piles and ends breaking and forming a clot that blocks the artery. Next, the tissue supplied by the artery dies .
          
          Alcohol stimulates the production of "good" cholesterol ( high density lipoprotein ), which eliminates the "bad " cholesterol ( low density lipoprotein ) of arteries and veins which could form plaques .
          It also reduces the "stickiness " or coagulation of the red cells that could form a stroke and block blood flow in an artery ( thrombosis ) carrying a myocardial infarction or stroke ( L Lacoste et al. , 2001 ) .
          Alcohol also has a global anti-inflammatory effect which positively affects the blood vessels and , therefore , delays the development of atherosclerosis ( R Estruch et al. , 2004 ) .
          The wine also contains phenolic substances that act as antioxidants and prevent the bad cholesterol from entering the arterial walls. These antioxidants also reduce damage caused by free radicals in the body ( toxic waste ) that contribute to cause degenerative diseases such as cancer , Alzheimer's , Parkinson's and aging. Note that the antioxidant present in the unfermented grape juice is less than wine - the antioxidant activity increases during the process of fermentation and maturation . Antioxidant levels depend on the processing , filtering , and the strain of the add, and the height from the ground ( Frankel et al. , 2000 ) .
          
          Resveratrol and quercetin and epicatechin are the primary antioxidants found in wine. These phenolic compounds ( bioflavonoids ) give the wine its characteristic flavor and color. The plants produce in response to a fungal infection , to ultraviolet light , as well as various chemical and physical stress factors, especially during ripening. Researchers have shown that antioxidants in wine are five times more potent than the reference antioxidant , vitamin E.
          
          These results support the growing and overwhelming body of scientific research indicating that moderate alcohol consumption is associated with lower levels of heart disease , better health and greater longevity ( Mukamal , KL et al. , 2006).
          
          
          Wine and diabetes mellitus
          Studies of a large segment of the population shows that people who drink lightly to moderately have a lower risk of diabetes than abstainers or heavy drinkers . The results of a meta- analysis examining the relationship between moderate alcohol consumption and type 2 diabetes indicate a protective effect against diabetes when wine is consumed in moderation. For men and women , the risk of diabetes was reduced by 30 % ( S. Carlsson et al, 2005 , Koppes LL et al, 2005 SG Wannamethee et al, 2003; . . . Avogaro , A. et al. , 2004 ; Wei , M. et al 2000). .
          
          Exactly how alcohol reduces the risk of diabetes has not yet been clearly established. Research shows that alcohol may enhance the body's resistance to insulin, a problem of diabetes type 2 or " adult onset diabetes " . People who suffer type 2 diabetes can not use glucose effectively for their resistance to insulin (the hormone that allows the body's cells use glucose ) .
          
          But not only the risk of type 2 diabetes decreases with moderate alcohol consumption , but also the potential cardiac complications related to diabetes. This is extremely important if you consider that heart disease is the leading cause of death among those who suffer type 2 diabetes , who also are at four times greater risk of suffering a heart attack or stroke . Research indicates that the risk decreases considerably when consuming wine in moderation with meals.
          
          Given the global epidemic of type 2 diabetes , which is expected to increase further and is associated with enormous health costs , prevention of diabetes is a key public health issue . However , apparently , a moderate consumption may help reduce type 2 diabetes and therefore significantly contribute to improving public health ( Djousse L. et al, 2007 . 1758-65 ) .
          
          In view of these results, the benefits of moderate wine consumption should also be properly recognized. However, the scientific findings on the benefits of moderate physical well either mental , social good , consumption should not be an incentive to exceed the guidelines on moderate drinking . Remember, please , that wine should be consumed for pleasure and enjoyment rather than any benefit to health. In addition , drinking more than the recommended amounts will not provide more benefits,but health damage !
          
          
        < / p>         


           Wine, a culture of moderation < / strong > < / p>         


          The wine is part of life and culture of Europe . The EU is the world's largest wine producer and the largest exporter of wine products. The contribution made by the sector to the economy of the EU is around 15,000 million euros a year. However, the importance of the wine sector for the European economy should not be measured in monetary terms, as the sector enters many levels of European life , which makes a significant contribution in socio-economic terms , environmental and societal : there where vineyards dot the landscape , the wine industry provides jobs to millions of people , helping to maintain the rural fabric and a lifestyle that has a lot to do with the notion of European identity itself . What's more , wine and wine products are appreciated by millions of consumers in Europe and the world , this being sometimes to the distinguishing element of the celebrations and the worthy companion of a good meal.
          
          The European wine sector recognizes this important contribution and strives to promote the wine industry and its products within the EU and abroad .
          
          However, the European wine sector also recognizes the dangers and the negative social and economic impact that can engender , and in fact has engendered , excessive consumption of wine and other alcoholic beverages . The European wine sector also recognizes that although for most consumers wine products are a nice drink to taste it in moderation , a minority abusing alcohol in a way harmful to themselves and can be harmful to you around them. The sector also recognizes the existence of a disturbing trend in relation to binge drinking culture , with a very marked character in some areas of the European Union and among some age groups , and within certain socio- economic and social groups .
          
          The European wine industry considers product quality produced encourages moderate consumption habits . However , the sector also recognizes that not all people consume wine in moderation , so that attempts to promote social norm moderation and responsibility in wine consumption .
          
          To this end , the European wine sector has developed a pan-European program called " Wine in moderation " which aims to promote more responsible drinking habits and reduce alcohol abuse and damage caused by improper use , and supports the initiatives aimed at reducing the negative behavior caused by alcohol consumption in Europe , while preserving the cultural, environmental and economic position of wine in European society.
          
          Common Message This is the result of a mutual agreement will form the basis and rationale of the Wine in Moderation program . The program has been designed to develop throughout the European Union , with a view to :
          
          communicate about moderation and responsibility in wine consuming responsibly and promote moderate consumption such as cultural and social norm.
          help prevent abusive and / or excessive drinking , reduce alcohol misuse and help young people and adults to make good decisions and accountable to the drink.
          effectively cooperate with the competent authorities and other relevant parties in preventing excessive consumption and misuse of wine .
          
          A natural product : centuries of passion, many varieties
          Wine is a natural agricultural product, as well as recognize the treaties of the EU legislation in the EU is defined as " the product obtained exclusively from the alcoholic , complete or partial fermentation of fresh grapes, whether or not or grape . "
          
          Wine is a strictly regulated , from the vineyard to the consumer product: the grape growing and winemaking are regulated by the Common Market Organisation in the EU ( COM) in the framework of the Common Agricultural Policy (CAP ) . In her comprehensive and specific standards covering the entire process of wine production , particularly soils, cultivated areas , the release of the different varieties of wine and wine making set .
          
          Wine making is both an art and a science, and the different climates and soil types leave their mark on each grape variety . Following different winemaking methods have emerged many different styles of wine , and few would achieve winemakers agree on a single "correct" method of making wine. Each wine is unique. The soil, climate , geology , the variety of strains and style of preparation are all but variable key factors that give each wine its unique character.
          
          The wine-growing regions of Europe produced a wide variety of excellent wines . While wine is a natural product , technological innovation has brought better hygiene and control of production , thus contributing to the production of wines suited to the palate of today's consumers . In fact , global wine consumption in Europe has fallen , as have been moving habits to higher quality wines . < / P>         


          Socioeconomic dimension
            Wine Resource: a vital sector , an ecological asset, a lifestyle < / strong > < / p>         


          The European Union is the largest producer , consumer, exporter and importer of wine. In fact, in Europe more than half of the wine production worldwide wine production occurs is an essential economic activity for many regional economies.
          In 2004 , wine production represented 5.4% of final agricultural production in the EU and to some southern European economies , accounted for approximately 10 % of the value of its agricultural production. That was actually in Austria, Slovenia, Spain , France, Italy , Luxembourg and Portugal. The industry receives each year by € 1,300 million in aid from the CAP.
          
          
          
          While in recent years has increased the volume of wine imports to the EU, the EU remains a net exporter of wine. In 2006 , total exports came from the EU amounted to € 5,500 million , with a net contribution of € 3,000 million in the trade balance of the Community.
          
          The grape growing and wine production also play a role in the level of activity and employment in rural areas in many EU Member States and their regional role .
          
          In 2005 , the number of farms dedicated to growing grapes for wine production in the EU -25 amounted to about 1.3 million farms , ie just over 20 % of all EU farms . These farms , which occupy more than 3.4 million hectares of land, representing approximately 20 % of total employment in the EU agriculture because they provide jobs to more than three million people , including prevailing even the family labor . In addition to permanent jobs , a large contingent of temporary employment for the harvest is also used. Mediterranean countries (Italy, Portugal, France, Spain and Greece ) employ 84% of the labor used in the vineyards .
          
          When examined how the wine have evolved holdings over time , a significant reduction in the number of farms ( 2.1 million in 1990 to 1.3 million in 2005) is observed , as well as its corresponding level of employment.
          
          These results are a clear indication of a long and deep restructuring that is taking place in the European wine industry , which is leading to the expansion of the average size of the wine production and rationalization of production factor is the hand work in the context of a slight reduction in areas planted with vines.
          
          The socio-economic dimension of the culture of the vine extends beyond the farming in the vineyards and also covers indirect economic activities related to wine production , such as trade and marketing of wine , production of oak barrels , bottles , caps and corks , and the development of wine tourism. The wine industry also contributes considerably to the environment. The vineyards are guarantors of human presence in fragile areas that often lack economic alternatives . The vines planted in the hills help to limit soil erosion and are also a fire protection because the low density of their rhizomes prevents the spread thereof.
          
          In view of the value they add to the landscape and the vineyards of the contribution to its preservation , the European Landscape Convention also gives special importance to the vineyards. Furthermore, based on the provisions of the European Landscape Convention relating to the protection , management and planning of landscapes , have developed numerous studies highlighting the value and establishing codes of good practice to preserve the environment and promote the landscape wine with the distinction of quality tourism.
          
        < / p>         


          History of wine
            History of wine : the cult of moderation < / strong > < / p>         
        < / strong > < / p>         


          As an enduring symbol of European life , the role of wine has evolved over time, changing from a major food source that was to become cultural complement of food and conviviality , supports a healthy lifestyle . He has also developed the art of viticulture, but a principle that has not changed at all is the European wine tradition of presenting and communicating about himself , focusing on the origins, heritage and winemaking . Therefore, wine is usually associated with the food, the history , the quality of local products and some social solemnity. As such , despite the differences in consumption patterns observed throughout the EU , moderate consumption is still the general rule and is only a small minority who misuses the wine.
          
          The appreciation among European wine reflects the diversity of the European experience, the craftsmanship and culinary habits. The association of wine as part of the European identity also promotes moderate consumption . However, in contrast to the inherent culture of wine , the EU Member States are experiencing a growing trend of alcohol abuse , particularly among young people, who are having important implications from a health , legal , economic and social . Because a responsible wine consumption is compatible with European style , modern and healthy life , the current wine culture should include a shared commitment of all parties to ensure that moderate consumption remains the social norm.
          
          
          
          
          
           Habits
            Understand , regional and inter < / strong > < / p> complex determinants         


          Traditionally , most European cultures consider wine a refined alternative , consistent with moderate consumption reviewed . Although wine consumption has been reduced considerably in the EU the last 20 years , a gradual increase in alcohol abuse among young people, for example , particularly in the form of " binge drinking " is noted ( excessive repeated use , ie more than five standard drinks once, for the purpose of getting drunk ) . This trend highlights the importance of analyzing consumption patterns and the need to promote a responsible and moderate consumption of alcoholic beverages .
          
          The comparative European study on alcohol ( European Comparative Alcohol Study - ECAS) collates and alcohol consumption habits in 14 European countries and highlights significant differences. Although the European Mediterranean region has the highest per capita consumption of alcohol, that's where you can see the habits that pose lower health risks : for example , alcoholic beverages are consumed primarily during meals at home , not in bars / restaurants and always eating . There are also considerable variations from the national binge drinking . For example , 34 % of Irish respondents replied that they usual mass consumption of alcohol, compared to only 2% of respondents in Italy, Greece and 4% in Portugal, wine producing countries (European Comparative Alcohol Study - Final Report ECAS , 2002 : see figure 5).
          
          In fact, consumption of harmful habits are considerably less common in countries predominantly wine producers, in which it is consumed more regularly, almost exclusively with meals. The amount of alcohol in a drinking session tends to be much lower than in the Nordic countries, the UK and Ireland, with the highest levels of binge drinking .
          
          Furthermore , there are huge cultural variations in the way that Europeans behave when they consume alcohol. In some societies, alcohol misuse is associated often with violent or antisocial behavior, whereas in others, the consumer is usually in harmony. These differences are partly related to inconsistent cultural beliefs about alcohol, expectations about the effects of alcohol, and social norms about drunkenness ( ECAS final report , 2002).
          
          It is well documented in the ECAS 2 trial than the traditional method considering only the per capita consumption of alcohol in the population of a country and skip consumption habits is not necessarily the key to identify the damage induced by alcohol factor . A more detailed understanding of individual consumption habits is needed , particularly among young people, in order to suggest solutions that can minimize the damage induced by alcohol. Scientific research examining consumer habits and motivations for drinking alcohol can make to curb abuse and misuse of alcohol. Measures are essential education and information to encourage individual responsibility and choice knowingly .
          
          The wine industry recognizes the need to work with the relevant authorities and to strengthen existing projects in the Member States of the EU and solve the problem of harmful drinking actors. The wine sector will promote the use of "best practices " that take effect long term sustainable initiatives to emphasize the negative consequences of irresponsible consumption. All actors should be interested in reducing the damage induced by alcohol. The most effective approach involves partnerships between actors not only nationally , but also , and often regional scale - which is even more important - a local / community level.
          
          
          
          
          Abuse and misuse
            Adverse effects of excessive consumption < / strong > < / p>         


          Excessive alcohol consumption increases the exposure to a wide range of risk factors that increase the risk to the amount of ingested alcohol. It is therefore crucial to prevent abusive consumption. The wine industry is committed to achieve .
          
          
          Assessment of social and health costs
          The damage resulting from misuse and alcohol abuse are a major concern. Harmful and hazardous alcohol consumption is a major cause of premature death and preventable diseases. One in four deaths among young people (15-29 years ) and one in ten young women is related to a harmful drinking . Among the causes of death accidents , injuries , violence and liver disease are included . It is the cause of 7.4 % of all health problems and premature death in the EU and has a negative impact on work and productivity ( J. Rehm et al. , 2003 P. Anderson et al. , 2006 ) .
          
          Alcohol abuse has also been associated with a number of long-term chronic diseases that reduce quality of life. These include hypertension, cardiovascular problems , liver cirrhosis , alcohol dependence , various forms of cancer , brain damage induced by alcohol and other problems ( Standridge J. et al. , 2004).
          
          Among pregnant women , excessive drinking can cause malformations of the embryo and its offspring can manifest symptoms of fetal alcohol syndrome. Therefore , it is recommended not to drink alcohol during pregnancy ( J. Tsai et al. , 2007).
          
          Besides health problems from excessive alcohol induced , there are social consequences for both drinkers and for other community members . These consequences include damage to the family members ( including children) , friends and colleagues , as well as pedestrians and unknown , ie people harassed by intoxicated individuals . Alcohol abuse also affects the professional life : nearly 5 % of men and 2% of women in the EU -15 account for a negative impact of alcohol on their work or studies ( P. Anderson et al . , 2006).
          
          
          
          Restrictions required for minors < / strong > < / p>         


          Physical immaturity
          Moreover, young people are exposed to more risk than adults , but they still have skills underdeveloped decision -making , which is reflected in the frequent injuries suffered ( JN Miller et al. , 2007) during adolescence. The young brain is sensitive to the wounds caused by alcohol and know not to listen to your body signals to stop drinking alcohol ( L. Spear , 2004).
          
          Since adolescents are at full physical, generally have not fully developed the same ability to tolerate alcohol than adults. It also notes that alcohol dependence develops more likely if you start drinking before adulthood . Researchers have found that the younger you start drinking , the greater the risk of alcohol dependence later in life ( Hingson RW , 2006).
          
          
          
          In addition , alcohol damages the brain development of young people. Consequently , alcohol consumption , particularly binge consuming when brain development is not yet complete, can impair the functioning of the brain posterior ( A. White et al. , 2004).
          
          Mental immaturity
          Moreover, young people are exposed to more risk than adults , but they still have skills underdeveloped decision -making , which is reflected in the frequent injuries suffered ( JN Miller et al. , 2007) during adolescence. The young brain is sensitive to the wounds caused by alcohol and know not to listen to your body signals to stop drinking alcohol ( L. Spear , 2004).
          
          The high expectations that many young attributed to alcohol as a "social lubricant " ( suppressor inhibitions ) can sometimes make them run huge risks .
          
          What's more , the constant process of change and transformation experienced by young people and affects their personality and physiology can bring in a jiffy to psychological and physical dependence on alcohol .
          
          
          Family influence
          However , recent research in the UK ( MA Bellis et al. , 2007) suggest that teens who drink in moderation at home with the family are not as likely to binge drinking .
          
          Also , monitoring of alcohol consumption by parents in the home environment can provide a tool to establish a parent - child dialogue about alcohol . This method requires understanding parents to ensure that promote moderate consumption only , and only when appropriate. Parents should set an example by establishing and promoting socially acceptable habits of consumption.
          
          
          Minimum purchase
          Ensure compliance with the ban on sales to minors
          
          
          In each Member State of the EU, the laws reflect regional and cultural differences. As regards the age to buy alcohol, legal restrictions vary from country to country and generally range from 16 to 21. Since all EU countries limit by law the sale of alcohol to minors , the wine industry is in favor of consumers of all ages receive sufficient information about the minimum age for buying and drinking alcohol .
          
          However , legal restrictions on the minimum purchase age may only be operative if the respective laws apply. The law enforcement is extremely important because studies show that children end up buying alcoholic drinks whatever the legal limits. This is probably the result of insufficient or inconsistent application of the law , particularly when there is little effort to comply with the law in the community. The European wine sector will contribute to raise awareness and promote respect for the society with the laws governing the minimum age for buying alcohol.
          
          
          
          
           Drinking and Driving - Do not exceed the limits of the TAS ( blood alcohol rate ) for drivers
            Like any other alcoholic beverage , wine consumption disrupts the ability to carry out certain activities , such as driving .
          < / strong >
          Rate of alcohol in blood ( TAS)
          The TAS is the amount of alcohol in the bloodstream : TAS level of 0.5 means that a person has 0.5 grams of alcohol in the body per liter of blood.
          Whereas a standard drink with 10 grams of alcohol, the TAS increases usually 0.2-0.3 per standard drink . In general, decreases in TAS approximately 0.2-0.1 per hour ( ¾ to 1 standard drink , or 8 grams of alcohol per hour ) .
          The TAS is triggered when alcohol is ingested on an empty stomach.
          
          
          Alcohol absorption
          
          After a drink, the alcohol is rapidly absorbed by the stomach and intestine and passes into the bloodstream . The level of alcohol in the blood after a few glasses of drink depends on the pace and the rate of decomposition in the liver. The liver's ability to metabolize alcohol is limited. Therefore, if the amount of alcohol in the liver exceeds the capacity of decomposition, the alcohol is circulated through the blood to reach other organs and tissues , such as brain . Usually alcohol begins to affect the brain 5 minutes after being ingested .
          
          The influence of alcohol on individuals varies depending on their size, physique , gender , general health, metabolism, and / or conditions under which alcohol ingested (ie with or without food ) . For example, a woman TAS increases generally more than a man because women tend to be lower and have more adipose tissue than men per kilo of body weight . In addition, men have more body water , so alcohol is more concentrated in the blood of a woman who uses the same glasses as a man. Moreover , women have fewer alcohol metabolizing enzymes in the stomach and liver.
          
          Given the multitude of factors that affect the TAS , it is very difficult to assess the TAS or disability. Alcohol markedly impairs the ability to drive safely . Later you will find a list of some common negative consequences of drinking .
          
           Impact of alcohol on the ability to drive < / strong >
          
          
          Consequences on psychomotor functions driver
          
          Coordination and responsiveness are reduced
          Alters the ability to judge speed, distance and relative position of the vehicle
          Capacity is altered to follow a path or face the unexpected
          
          Consequences on the driver's vision
          
          The visual field is reduced and peripheral vision is impaired
          Recovery of sight after exposure to glare Delayed
          The accommodation and the ability to follow objects with his eyes deteriorate, even with low levels of blood alcohol
          
          Effect on behavior and conduct
          
          Alcohol alters the driving behavior and reactions can be aggressive or negligent
          It induces a feeling of overvaluation , which can lead to rash decisions.
          
          
          For these reasons, all EU Member States have established legal limit for drivers TAS ( see Table 6) .
          
          The best advice is not to consume alcohol when driving. In any case,the SBP limits for drivers should not be exceeded at any time !
          
          
          
          
           Wine in Moderation program is an initiative of the European wine sector , aimed at promoting moderation and responsibility in wine consumption and contribute to the prevention of excessive or inappropriate consumption of alcoholic beverages in Europe. < / strong >
          
          Wine in Moderation program is a commitment to the following organizations:
          
          
          CEEV - Comité Européen des Entreprises Vins
          Committee Vins
          Vins, Vins aromatises , Mousseux Vins , Vins de Liqueur et Autres Produits de la Vigne
          www.ceev.be
          
          
          COPA- COGECA
          Committee of Professional Agricultural Organisations in the European Union
          General Confederation of Agricultural Co -operatives in the European Union
          www.copa - cogeca.eu
          
          
          SILC
          Confédération Européenne des Vignerons Independants
          www.cevi - eciw.eu
          
          
          EASA
          European Advertising Standards Alliance
          www.easa - alliance.org
          
          
          Euro -toques International
          www.euro - toques.org
          
          
          
          Wine in Moderation program was created and is being implemented in collaboration with Weber & Shandwick (Brussels ) .
          
          
        < / p>         The wine has evolved as part of life , culture and European diet since time immemorial. Wine making made ​​its way in Europe with the expansion of the Roman Empire throughout the Mediterranean , which was when many of the major wine regions that still exist today were established. Even then , making wine was a very precise job that was promoting the development of new grape varieties and cultivation techniques . I was thus appearing barrels for reservation and transportation of wine, plus bottles that were used back then for the first time and even a rudimentary naming system was created , as some regions were gaining a reputation of producing fine wines. As was progressively refined wine production was increasing popularity and wine taverns became a common element of all the cities of the Empire.
        
        However, the wine culture predates the Roman times in Europe. Indeed , as in ancient Greece , wine was praised by poets , historians and artists and appears frequently in the works of Homer and Aesop . However, in Greece , wine was considered a privilege of the upper classes. Dionysus , the Greek god of wine represented not only the powers of intoxication of wine, but also its social and beneficial influences . He was regarded as the god promoter of civilization , longevity , love and peace , as the patron saint of agriculture and the theater. In fact , according to the Greek historian Thucydides " the people of the Mediterranean began to emerge from barbarism when they learned to cultivate the olive and the vine."
        
        Over the centuries , the art of making wine was spreading in France , Spain , Germany and part of Britain. At that time , wine was already considered as an important part of the daily diet , and people began to appreciate the strongest and most wines character . The appreciation of wine in Europe was further strengthened by the Middle Ages , in part because drinking water was not safe yet , so wine was the preferred alternative to accompany meals . At the same time , viticulture and winemaking were moving through the work of the monasteries spread across the continent , where they were born some of the finest vineyards in Europe . For example , the Benedictine monks were among the most important wine producers in Europe, with vineyards in the regions of Champagne, Burgundy and Bordeaux, as well as in the German regions of the Rhine and Franconia. The nobles and merchant classes drank wine at every meal and had their well-stocked cellars.
        
        During the 16th century began to appreciate wine as a more refined alternative to beer and as were diversifying vine products , consumers began to evaluate the change in consumption habits , and people began to comment on the vices and virtues of wine with greater enthusiasm than in centuries past . The so famous poet of Elizabethan England watched since " Good wine is a jovial creature, if it makes good use " implicitly commenting on the abuse of wine then. During the time Shakespeare became available drinking water in London, moved ahead to the wine industry into a new era .
        
        Improved production techniques intervened during the 17th and 18th centuries led to development of more refined wines, first used glass bottles and corks were invented. The rise of the French wine industry began in this period , to give traders the Netherlands, Germany , Ireland and Scandinavia particular recognition to the wines of Bordeaux. Bordeaux wine traded in exchange for coffee and other coveted items from the New World , which helped to strengthen the role of wine in the emerging global trade.
        
        While the 19th century is considered the golden age of wine in many regions , this was not without tragedy. Indeed , around 1863, many vineyards had a disease caused by phylloxera , an insect sucking the juice to the roots. When it was discovered that American vines were resistant to phylloxera , the American decided to plant vineyards in the affected regions of France. So a hybrid grape that produced a greater variety of wines originated. It was then also when some winemakers was moved to the Rioja region in northern Spain and taught the Spaniards to make wine with local grape varieties .
        
        Over the past 150 years of winemaking has been totally revolutionized art and science as it is. Indeed , with access to refrigeration , wineries have been able to easily control the temperature and fermentation processes to produce high quality wines in warm climate regions . The introduction of machinery for harvesting has led to the greatest extent and effectiveness of the vines. While the wine industry is facing the challenge of meeting the demands of a growing market without losing the individual character of its wines , technology helps ensure a smooth supply of quality wines . The appreciation that we have currently is a paid wine to that timeless art of winemaking tribute, and demonstrates the importance of wine in history and diversity of European culture .



Wine culture 
Wine culture: a heritage of cultures, diversity appreciation and